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To all of those who have spent long and unthanked hours in pursuit of
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And my thanks, of course, to Elizabeth.
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Copyright © 1989, 1990 by the Dahlin Family Press
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Congress Cataloging in Publication Data: Bramley, William The Gods
1. World History 2. Unidentified Flying Objects.
3. Bramley, William. I. Title.
D24.5.B73 ” 1989 909 89-1148
1. The Search Begins 1
2. Orientation 5
3. UFOs: Truth or Fiction? 10
4. The Gods of Eden 36
5. Brotherhood of the Snake 53
6. The Pyramid Builders 57
7. Jehovah 73
8. Melchizedek’s Apron 89
9. Gods and Aryans 94
10. The Maverick Religions 103
11. Doom Prophets 111
12. The Jesus Ministry 120
13. Apocalypse of John 135
14. The Plagues of Justinian 144
15. Mohammed 151
16. Messiahs and Means 168
17. Flying Gods Over America 172
18. The Black Death 179
19. Luther and the Rose 196
20. A New Aristocracy 209
21. Funny Money 213
22. Marching Saints 221
23. William and Mary Have a War 227
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vi William Bramley
24. Knights’ New Dawn 233
25. The “King Rats” 244
26. The Count of St. Germain 259
27. Here a Knight, There a Knight… 271
28. American Phoenix 275
29. The World Afire 294
30. Master Smith and the Angel 302
31. Apocalypse of Marx 323
32. Funny Money Goes International 328
33. The Workers’ Paradise 335
34. Robo-Sapiens 351
35. St. Germain Returns 364
36. Universe of Stone 375
37. Modern “Ezekiels” 393
38. The New Eden 397
39. Escape from Eden 431
40. The Nature of a Supreme Being 435
41. To the Researcher 444
The Search Begins
WHEN I FIRST began researching the origins of human
warfare, certainly the furthest thing from my mind were
Unidentified Flying Objects, better known as “UFOs.”
The many flying saucer magazines which once graced
the newsstands were, in my opinion, not worthy of serious
consideration.* I also did not feel that the UFO phenomenon
was terribly important even if it was evidence of an
extraterrestrial race. Solving the down-to-earth problems
of war and human suffering seemed so much more important
than arguing over whether or not “little green men from
Mars” might occasionally be visiting Earth.
I began researching this book in 1979; however, my
desire to see an end to war arose much earlier in life, at
just about the age of eight. Back then, war movies were
*A recent exception is UFO magazine, which I recommend. It is pres- ently published in Los Angeles, California by Vicki Cooper and Sherie Stark.
2 William Bramley
very popular in my circle of friends. Our favorite game was playing “army.” I usually commanded one squad of kids and my friend David led the opposition. We filled our imaginary battles with the same glamor and altruism we saw on television. We had no greater hero than the late actor Vic Morrow who would gallantly lead his army squad to victory every week on the television series, Combat!.
One Saturday afternoon I was watching a Hollywood war movie on television. It was like any other war movie except that it contained a short piece of numbing realism. For the first time in my life, I found myself looking at documentary film footage of an actual Nazi concentration camp. Long after the images vanished off the television screen, I was haunted by the pictures of skeleton-like bodies being thrown into large pits. Like so many other people, I had trouble fathoming the souls of the Nazis who could shove human beings into brick ovens like loaves of bread and moments later pulled out the charred remains. Within a minute, those grainy black-and-white images presented a true picture of war. Behind the curt salutes and stirring oratory, war is little but a degraded psychosis. While war movies and games can sometimes be fun, the real thing is unconscionable.
For centuries, scientists and thinkers have attempted to solve the riddle of why people go to war. They have observed that nearly all of Earth’s creatures fight among themselves at one time or another, usually over food, territory, or mating. Aggression seems to be a universal behavior related to survival. Other factors also contribute to the creation of wars. The analyst must take into consideration such variables as human psychology, sociology, political leadership, economic conditions, and the natural surroundings. Many thinkers, however, have erroneously equated all human motives with motives found in the animal kingdom. This is a mistake because intelligence breeds complexity. As creatures rise in intelligence, then- motivations tend to become more elaborate. It is easy to understand the mental stimuli in two alley cats squabbling over a scrap of food, but it would be a mistake to attribute as simple a state of mind to a terrorist planting a bomb in an airport.
THE GODS OF EDEN 3
I began this study as the result of a single idea I had encountered. The concept is certainly not a new one, and at first it seems narrow in scope. The idea is nevertheless quite important because it addresses a motivation which can only be formulated by creatures of high intelligence:
War can be its own valuable commodity.
The simple existence of violent conflict between groups of people can, in itself, be valuable to someone regardless of the issues over which people are fighting. An obvious example is an armaments manufacturer selling military hardware to warring nations, or a lending institution making loans to governments during wartime. Both can achieve an economic benefit from the mere existence of war as long as the violence does not directly touch them.
The value of war as a commodity extends well beyond monetary gain:
War can be an effective tool for maintaining social and political control over a large population.
In the sixteenth century, Italy consisted of numerous independent principalities which were often at war with one another. When a prince conquered a neighboring city, he would sometimes breed internal conflicts among the vanquished citizens. This was an effective way to maintain political control over the people because the endless squabbling prevented the vanquished people from engaging in unified action against the conqueror. It did not greatly matter over what issues the people bickered so long as they valiantly struggled against one another and not against the conquering prince.
A state of war can also be used to encourage populations to think in ways that they would not otherwise do, and to accept the formation of institutions that they would normally reject The longer a nation involves itself in wars, the more entrenched those, institutions and ways of thinking will become.
Most comprehensive history books contain brief refer- ences to this type of manipulative third party activity. It is no secret, for example, that prior to the American Revolution, France had sent intelligence agents to America to stir up colonial discontent against the British Crown. It is also no
4 William Bramley
secret that the German military had aided Lenin and the
Bolsheviks in the Russian revolution of 1917. Throughout all
of history, people and nations have benefited from, and have
contributed to, the existence of other people’s conflicts.
Intrigued by these concepts, I resolved to do a study to
determine just how important the third party factor has
been in human history. I wanted to discover what common
threads, if any, may have existed between various third
party influences in history. It was my hope that this study
would offer added insights into how and by whom history
has been made.
What resulted from this modest goal was one of the
most extraordinary odysseys I have ever taken. The trail of
investigation wove through a complex labyrinth of remark-
able facts, startling theories and everything in between.
As I dug ever deeper, a common thread did emerge. To
my chagrin, it was a thread so bizarre that on at least
two occasions I terminated my research in disgust. As I
pondered my predicament, I realized something important:
Rational minds tend to seek rational causes to explain
As I probed deeper, however, I was compelled to face the
possibility that some human problems may be rooted in some
of the most utterly bizarre realities imaginable. Because such
realities are rarely acknowledged, let alone understood, they
are not dealt with. As a result, the problems those realities
generate are rarely resolved, and so the world seems to
stumble from one calamity to the next.
I will admit that when I began my research I had a
bias about what I was expecting to find: a human profit
motive as the common thread which links various third-
party influences in mankind’s violent history. What I found
instead was the UFO.
Nothing could have been more unwelcome.
Husband to wife: Look at this, honey. It says here
that the Earth travels 595 million miles around the
sun every year at a speed of 66,000 miles per hour.
At the same time, the Earth is rotating around the
center of the galaxy. The galaxy is traveling endlessly
through space and is pulling the Earth along with it.
Now how can you say we never go anywhere?
HELLO, AND WELCOME. This is our planet Earth. Before
starting our journey through history, let us take a brief look
at our little space orb from the vantage point of newcomers
undergoing a brief orientation.
“Spaceship Earth,” as some people like to call it, is a
relatively small celestial body. The American space shuttle
can completely orbit the Earth in only ninety minutes. In
modern aircraft, the crossing of once-formidable oceans
has become little more than a dull routine for many an
airborne businessperson plying his or her trade between
continents. By merely picking up a telephone and dialing,
6 William Bramley THE GODS OF EDEN 7
one can speak instantly to someone on the opposite side of ago became hopelessly bemuddled by countless false ideas, the globe. We are all witnesses to the remarkable manner strange mystical beliefs and practices, incomprehensible in which high-speed travel and telecommunications make symbolism, and erroneous scientific teachings. As a result, contact between distant points on Earth quickly and easily the subject of the spirit is today almost unstudiable. On top manageable. of that, many scholars trained in Western scientific meth-
Earth is not only small, it is also quite remote. If you and ods reject the idea of a soul entirely, apparently because I were to take a position outside of the Milky Way galaxy, they cannot put a spirit under a microscope and watch it we would see that Earth is near the galaxy’s outer edge. In squiggle, or plant electrodes in it and give it a jolt. addition, the Milky Way is dwarfed by much larger gal- As good fortune would have it, some breakthroughs on axies. This isolated location might help explain why Earth the subject have been made within recent decades. Evi- has so few contacts with extraterrestrial civilizations, if such dence that every person is a unique spiritual being is strong civilizations exist. Earth is afloat in the distant boondocks indeed. Volumes of fascinating testimony have been gath- of a minor galaxy. ered from people who have undergone so-called “near-death”
Despite its isolation, Earth is pretty, and it is inhabited. experiences. During such episodes, many people undergo As of this writing, the human population numbers over five the sensation of leaving their bodies, especially as their billion people. Add to that figure all of the other large bodies approached death. Some psychiatrists argue that this mammals, and we find that the lands and waters of Earth phenomenon is nothing more than a self-protective illusion are occupied by an enormous population of intelligent and of the mind. It is not as simple as that Many near-death semi-intelligent creatures. victims are able to perceive their bodies from an accu-
What kind of animals are human beings? As a student of rate exterior perspective. They retain their complete self- biology can quickly tell you, humans constitute that animal awareness and personal identity even though their bodies
species known as Homo sapiens. The work Homo comes are unconscious.* from the Latin word for man, and sapiens means being In light of such testimony, it is not surprising that a few wise or sensible. The label Homo sapiens therefore denotes religions, such as Buddhism, believe that people are immor- a creature possessed of wisdom or sensibility. Most Homo tal spiritual beings which become enmeshed in bodies dur- sapiens do live up to their title, by and large, although a ing life. Buddhists conclude that this is caused, at least in small number obviously do not. part, by the spirit’s long-term interaction with the physical
When dealing with a human being, are we only con- fronting an animal? As it turns out, we are not. It appears that we are faced with something much more important: a spiritual being.
The idea that there is a spiritual reality to life is ageless. Some religions have held the belief for millennia that human bodies are mere puppets animated by spiritual beings. Often accompanying this tenet are doctrines concerning “reincar- nation” or an “afterlife.” In the Christian religion, the word “soul” has long been used to denote a spiritual entity which survives the death of the physical body.
universe. In sharp contrast to psychiatric theory, Buddhists teach that spiritual separation from the body is the healthiest state for human beings and Buddhists seek to attain that separation without suffering physical trauma or death. Their
*A short but interesting article entitled, “A Typology of Near-Death Experiences,” by Dr. Bruce Greyson, is found in the August 1985 issue of the American Journal of Psychiatry. Dr. Greyson presents a statistical breakdown of the different types of “near-death” phenomena and notes, “Individuals reporting these three types of near-death experiences did not
Some people claim that an ancient wisdom about the spir- differ significantly on demographic variables.” (p. 968). Dr. Greyson did
it had once existed. If such a wisdom ever did exist, it long
not speculate as to what causes the experiences.
THE GODS OF EDEN 9
8 . William Bramley
goal is encouraged by the belief that a spiritual being can
operate a body as well, or better, from outside a body as
The definition of a spiritual being shared by several reli-
gions appears to be the most accurate one: a spiritual being
is an entity possessed of awareness, creativity, and person-
ality. It is not composed of matter or of any other compo-
nent of the physical universe; it appears instead to be an
immortal unit of awareness which cannot perish, although
it can become entrapped by physical matter. The spiritual
being is fully capable of understanding itself.
The modern trend, of course, is to view the brain as the
center of awareness and personality. Scientists have been
able to electrically stimulate specific parts of the brain to
produce the physiological manifestations of many human
emotions. This, however, reveals the brain to be nothing
more than a sophisticated switchboard capable of being
activated by a variety of external sources, such as by an
experimenter with his electrodes or even perhaps by a spir-
itual being with its own energy output. The interaction
between a spiritual entity and the body’s central nervous
system appears to be so intimate that a change in one can
often influence the behavior of the other.
From all of this emerges a picture indicating that human
beings are spiritual entities who enjoy a certain spiritual
immortality, but who are usually unaware of it until an
unexpected separation occurs. During life, spiritual beings
tend to utilize, almost exclusively, the perceptions of the
physical body. Death, according to this analysis, is little
more than spiritual abandonment of the body during a time
of intense physical, or sometimes even mental, injury.
What does all of this have to do with human warfare?
Almost everything, as we shall see.
That brings us to the third and final topic of our ori-
entation: UFOs. There are few subjects today as full of
false information, deceit, and madness as “flying saucers.”
Many earnest people who attempt to study the subject are
driven around in circles by a terrific amount of dishon-
esty from a small number of people who, for the sake
of a fleeting moment of notoriety or with the deliberate
intention to obfuscate, have clouded the field with false
reports, untenable “explanations,” and fraudulent evidence.
Suffice it to say that behind this smokescreen there is ample
evidence of extraterrestrial visitations to Earth. This is too
bad. An in-depth study of the UFO phenomenon reveals that
it does not offer a happy little romp through the titillating
unknown. The UFO appears more and more to be one of
the grimmest realities ever confronted by the human race.
Keeping the points of our brief orientation in mind, let us
now begin a deeper probe.
THE GODS OF EDEN 11
accurate term because not all unidentified flying objects are
Hundreds of UFOs are reported every year, usually to
police, to the news media, or to UFO research groups.
These reports represent only a minority of the total number
of UFOs actually seen because most UFO witnesses do not
publicly reveal their encounters.
Roughly 90% to 95% of all reported UFOs prove to
be man-made aircraft or unrecognized natural phenomena.
Approximately 1.5% to 2% are outright hoaxes, often
accompanied by spurious photographs. Although hoaxes
constitute such a small percentage of all UFO reports, they
have created a disproportionate amount of trouble. Hoaxes
are, in fact, responsible for almost entirely disgracing the
serious study of UFOs. The more convincing the fraud, the
more damage it will usually do. The remaining 3% to 8.5%
of all UFO sightings are those which appear to be aircraft
of nonhuman origin. Most researchers are concerned with
this last group.
Twentieth-century UFOs were rarely reported in the mass
media before 1947, and so some people assume that UFOs
must be a relatively modern phenomenon. UFOs are, in fact,
quite the opposite. UFOs have been reported for thousands
of years in all parts of the world. For example, writer Julius
Obsequens reproduced the following account from 216 B.C.
in his book, Prodigorium liber:
UFOs: Truth or
UFOs: WHAT ARE they? Where do they come from?
Strictly speaking, the term unidentified flying object
(UFO) refers to any aerial object which cannot be posi-
tively identified as a man-made construction or as any
known phenomenon of nature. The term implies a mystery.
In common parlance, UFO is often used to denote any
object which might be a spacecraft from an extraterrestrial
The phrase unidentified flying object was coined by U.S.
Air Force Captain Edward J. Ruppelt. Captain Ruppelt led
an Air Force investigation into the phenomenon in 1951.
Prior to Ruppelt’s investigation, UFOs were usually called
“flying saucers” because many eyewitnesses described the
objects as disc-shaped. “Flying saucer” quickly became a
term of derision, however, due to the skepticism expressed
by many newspaper and magazine writers. “Unidentified
flying object” was used by Captain Ruppelt to lend his Air
Force study an air of respectability. UFO is also a more
Things like ships were seen in the sky over Italy….
At Arpi [in Italy] a round shield was seen in the
sky…. At Capua, the sky was all on fire, and one
saw figures like ships… . l
In the first century A.D., famed Roman statesman Cicero
recorded a night during which the sun, accompanied by
loud noises, was reportedly seen in the night sky. The
sky appeared to split open and reveal strange “spheres.”
UFOs became so troublesome in the eighth and ninth cen-
turies that emperor Charlemagne of France was compelled
to issue edicts forbidding them from perturbing the air and
provoking storms. In one episode, some of Charlemagne’s
12 William Bramley
subjects were taken up in aerial “ships,” shown marvels, and then returned to Earth, only to be put to death by an angry mob. Those troublesome ships were even accused of destroying crops.*
UFOs have not only been seen, they have also been worshipped throughout history. The religions of ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Americas were dominated by the adoration of humanlike “gods” from the heavens. Many of those “gods” were said to travel about in flying “boats” and “globes.” Ancient claims of that kind are today the basis of the modern “ancient astronauts” theory which postulates that a space age race had once visited Earth and had involved itself in human affairs. Some UFO researchers have gone a step further by suggesting that such a space age race had either created or conquered human society many thousands of years ago and that it has been maintaining a watchful eye on its possession ever since.
To many, such theories seem to be the stuff of sci- ence fiction. The ideas are, however, one outgrowth of an academic debate which has preoccupied historians for over a century: how did the ancient Old and New World civilizations, located on opposites of the Earth, come to so closely resemble one another? Why did the peoples of those far-flung civilizations develop such remarkably similar religious beliefs?
One widely-held view is that a land or ice bridge once spanned the Bering Strait between Siberia and Alaska over which people from the Old World had migrated into the New. Others point to archaeological evidence that the ancient Phoenicians had sailed across the Atlantic Ocean
THE GODS OF EDEN 13
centuries before the Scandinavian vikings or Christopher Columbus. Some scholars conclude that the Phoenicians had borrowed many features of the Egyptian civilization and had transplanted them to the New World. Another hypothesis is that the ancient Egyptians themselves had sailed across the ocean.
Despite evidence to support all of the above possibilities, none of the theories fully encompass all of the known facts. This has led to a fourth theory, well expressed in 1910 by Oxford professor and Nobel Laureate Frederick Soddy:
Some of the beliefs and legends bequeathed to us by Antiquity are so universally and firmly established that we have become accustomed to consider them as being almost as ancient as humanity itself. Never- theless we are tempted to inquire how far the fact that some of these beliefs and legends have so many features in common is due to chance, and whether the similarity between them may not point to the existence of an ancient, totally unknown and unsuspected civili- zation of which all other traces have disappeared.2
When such conjecture is raised, many people think of van- ished land masses or islands, such as the legendary lost con- tinents of Atlantis and Lemuria. One of Professor Soddy’s contemporaries, however, took a different approach and speculated that extraterrestrial societies were involved in Earth’s prehistory. Dr. Soddy’s controversial contemporary was Charles Hoy Fort (1867-1923).
Charles Fort is perhaps the earliest writer of the twenti- eth century to seriously suggest that extraterrestrials have been involved in human affairs. Fort supported himself on a small inheritance and spent many years of his adult
* A long and interesting collection of ancient UFO sightings and unusual life amassing reports of unusual phenomena from scien-
natural phenomena from the late B.C. and early A.D. years can be found in Harold T. Wilkins’ book, Flying Saucers on the Attack. Despite its sensationalistic title, Mr. Wilkins’ book is often well-argued and is worth reading as one of the earliest books of the modem UFO era. An excellent collection of ancient UFO reports can also be found in Jacques Vallee’s Passport to Magonia.
tific journals, newspapers, and magazines. The stories he collected were of such events as unusual moving lights in the sky, “rainfalls” of animals, and other occurrences which seem to defy conventional scientific explanation. His first two books, The Book of the Damned (1919) and
14 William Bramley THE GODS OF EDEN 15
New Lands (1923), contain a large assortment of UFO bellwethers to the rest of us, or as superior slaves or sightings and related phenomena from the 19th and early overseers, directing us in accordance with instructions 20th centuries. Fort concluded that Earth skies were received—from Somewhere else—in our mysterious hosting an array of extraterrestrial aircraft, which he called usefulness.5
“superconstructions.” Fort developed other theories from his research, several
Fort did not speculate as to what mankind’s “mysterious of which have endured and still remain provocative today. usefulness” might be, except to briefly suggest that humans
In The Book of the Damned, he wrote: might be slaves. In a lighter vein, Fort thought that Earth had had a very
I think we’re property. lively and colorful prehistory:
I should say we belong to something:
That once upon a time, this earth was No-man’s Land, that other worlds explored and colonized here, and fought among themselves for possession, but that now it’s owned by something:
That something owns this earth—all others warned off.3
But I accept that, in the past, before proprietorship was established, inhabitants of a host of other worlds have—dropped here, hopped here, wafted, sailed, flown, motored—walked here, for all I know—been pulled here, been pushed, have come singly, have come in enormous numbers; have visited occasionally, have visited periodically for hunting, trading, replenishing
Fort concluded that the human race does not have a very harems, mining; have been unable to stay here, have high status in relation to Earth’s extraterrestrial owners. In established colonies here, have been lost here; far- addressing the puzzle of “why don’t they [Earth’s owners] advanced peoples, or things, and primitive peoples or ever come here, or send here, openly,” he philosophized: whatever they were: white ones, black ones, yellow
Would we, if we could, educate and sophisticate pigs, geese, cattle? To understand how all of this applies to the human con-
Would it be wise to establish diplomatic relation with dition today, Fort offered no answers, only a formula:
the hen that now functions, satisfied with mere sense of achievement by way of compensation?4
In addition to likening the human race to self-satisfied livestock, Fort believed that a direct influence over human affairs was being exerted by Earth’s apparent owners:
Pigs, geese, and cattle. First find out that they are owned. Then find out the whyness of it.7
Fort had certainly expressed some daring ideas. They were published at a time when crude biplanes and dirigible I suspect that, after all, we’re useful—that among balloons ruled the sky. Charles Lindberg’s historic flight
contesting claimants, adjustment has occurred, or that across the Atlantic Ocean was still eight years away. something now has a legal right to us, by force, or by Fort acquired a small and loyal following during his day. having paid out analogues of beads for us to former, It was not until a third of a century later, however, that the more primitive, owners of us—that all of this has been foundation laid by Fort supported a sudden explosion of known, perhaps for ages, to certain ones upon this nonfiction works speculating that an extraterrestrial society earth, a cult or order, members of which function like had been involved in human affairs. This sudden surge of
16 William Bramley
interest was caused by a media-publicized rash of UFO sightings in the late 1940’s and 1950’s. One of the first books of that period to discuss ancient UFO sightings was Flying Saucers on the Attack by Harold T. Wilkins. It was published in 1954 by Citadel Press of New York. Citadel followed with a host of books, including The UFO and the Bible (1956) by Morris K. Jessup. Jessup’s book suggested that many Biblical events were the doings of a space age race, not of a God. Numerous passages from the Bible were quoted to support the theory. Similar books with similar titles followed, such as Flying Saucers in the Bible (1963) by Virginia F. Brasington and The Bible and Flying Saucers (1967) by Barry H. Downing.
On the other side of the Atlantic, a number of European writers were also making important contributions to the genre. The French writing team of Louis Pauwels and Jacques Bergier wrote their intriguing bestseller, Morning of the Magicians, which was published in America in the early 1960’s. Erich von Daniken of Switzerland was also writing about ancient astronauts during the 1950’s and ‘60’s, and he achieved great fame by the early ‘70’s after the publication of his first international bestseller on the subject: Chariots of the Gods? The powerful success of von Daniken’s book prompted a flood of similar books and motion pictures in the ‘70’s and early ‘80’s, bringing the idea of “ancient astronauts” to the attention of millions.
The notion of alien intervention in human affairs is gen- erally tolerated when it is expressed as a work of science fiction, but it is often poorly received when suggested as fact. This is understandable. The very idea of it seems, at first blush, to fly in the face of everything we have ever been taught. For centuries, there has been a strong tendency to think of our planet and the human race in very isolationist terms. Centuries ago, people even believed that humans were at the center of the universe and that the sun and stars all revolved around us. It was a flattering notion, but sadly not a true one. In the bygone days of the Inquisition, however, a person could be put to death for challenging the idea. The only “extraterrestrials” people were permitted to believe in were winged angels in white
THE GODS OF EDEN 17
robes sent from Heaven by the great god Jehovah. Although the sciences have thankfully moved away from that kind of perspective to a large extent, human-centered concepts of existence are still surprisingly strong.
Some persuasive-sounding arguments have been ad- vanced to refute the evidence that one or more extrater- restrial societies have been visiting the Earth. Some of those arguments are worth addressing:
1. No intelligent life other than mankind has been proven to exist elsewhere in the universe.
At first glance, this seems to be true. However, one need only look right here on Earth to find other intelligent life forms. Studies of dolphins and other large marine mammals have revealed a high intelligence in many of those creatures. Analyses of other mammals have uncovered in some of them a level of intelligence much higher than previously believed. This reveals that there are a great many intelligent and semi-intelligent creatures in the universe known to us; we share a planet with them. The fact that they all flourish together on this one small planet is an excellent indication that other intelligent creatures can exist elsewhere under the right conditions.
2. There has not been a single UFO sighting which could not be explained as a natural or human phenomenon. There- fore, all UFOs must be such phenomena.
This argument uses faulty logic. It is possible to “explain” almost anything as anything. I suppose one could “explain” the sun as billions of fireflies held in a gigantic glass bowl. This “explanation,” however, does not fit the evidence as well as the better theory that the sun is a huge mass of compressed hydrogen which is undergoing a process of atomic fusion.
Many UFO sightings are given prosaic explanations only by ignoring evidence which clearly reveals that they are not earthly phenomena. If one is selective enough in choosing which evidence and testimony to believe, one can invent almost any explanation to fit almost any UFO sighting. The trick is to find the best explanation to fit the true and complete facts. In many instances, the true and complete
18 William Bramley THE GODS OF EDEN 19
facts indicate that a UFO is indeed best explained as a admirable safety record makes air travel one of the safest natural phenomenon. In other cases, the best explanation modes of transportation today. is that a UFO is probably an intelligently-guided craft of Let us assume that the reported alien spacecraft in our nonhuman origin. Many remarkable sightings do fit this skies have precisely the same safety record as American latter category.* commercial jet aircraft—no better and no worse. Let us
3. There has been no “hard evidence” of UFOs or guess that 2000 “flying saucer” flights are made over Earth “ancient astronauts.” every year. That amounts to 5 1/2 flights every day. We Physical objects constitute “hard” evidence. In UFOlogy, will assume that each hypothetical saucer flight is made a piece of hard evidence might be a “crashed saucer” or the at a low enough altitude that, if a mishap should occur, body of an extraterrestrial pilot. It is argued that if alien the debris would fall to Earth before disintegrating in the
spacecraft have been flying in Earth’s skies for thousands of atmosphere. years, we should have a piece of concrete physical evidence Putting all of the above figures together, we discover by now. Setting aside allegations and evidence that some that a “flying saucer” would crash, or drop a substantial governments may have a crashed saucer or two secreted chunk of debris, only once every five centuries! That would away, we cannot logically expect to find too many alien amount to only twelve crashes since the dawn of mankind’s artifacts. To explain why, I will make an analogy between first recorded civilization! If we cut the safety factor in half UFOs and modern commercial jetliners. and double the number of hypothetical UFO flights to 4000
Millions of commercial airline flights take off from U.S. per year (11 per day), or leave the safety factor the same airports every year. Despite this enormous volume, very and quadruple the number of low-level saucer flights to few people will ever stumble upon a crashed jetliner or 8000 per year (22 per day), that would still amount to only dead crew member because only a tiny percentage of all one crash or major piece of debris once every one hundred flights end in disaster. Equally few individuals will ever twenty-five years!
find any instruments or debris tossed from jetliners because We can safely conclude that even if extraterrestrial craft jetliners are self-contained and the navigators rarely gouge have been flying in our skies for millennia, we cannot expect instruments from the flight panels and heave them out the to find too much wreckage or debris. The best evidence of cockpit window. If it were not for the fact that most of extraterrestrial visitation that we may reasonably expect us can see commercial jet aircraft and fly in them, the to obtain is eyewitness testimony, which is precisely the “hard” evidence of their existence would be surprisingly evidence we have.
scant, especially if they were to be manufactured in, and Despite these pessimistic statistics, a few rare UFO flown only to and from, remote areas. crashes have been reported. Fragments alleged to have Let us translate this into a mathematical formula. come from exploding UFOs have been found and made Based upon U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) public. One such piece was reported by a Brazilian statistics, roughly one in every million flights by major U.S. columnist who said that the item had been recovered carriers departing from American airports suffers a serious by a fisherman off the coast of Brazil in 1957. The accident, such as a crash, a crash landing away from an fragment was sent by Omni magazine to the Massachusetts airport, or the loss of a significant piece of the plane. This Institute of Technology (MIT) for analysis. It proved to be a piece of pure magnesium. An MIT analyst guessed that the fragment might have been a piece of weld metal from either an exploding aircraft or from a re-
*For a good overview of UFO cases, I recommend The U.F.O. Encyclo- pedia by Margaret Sachs. entering satellite. Because the piece could have been
20 William Bramley
manufactured on Earth, the test was considered incon- clusive.
4. If UFOs are extraterrestrial aircraft, there should be an undisputed photograph of one by now.
Anything can be disputed. To begin a dispute, all one needs to do is open one’s mouth and utter a few words. The mere existence of a dispute, therefore, does not in itself deny the reality of a thing. The dispute simply means that someone has chosen to quarrel, whether for good reasons or bad.
It is true, however, that researchers do face a paucity of decent UFO photographs. Available UFO snapshots tend to be of two varieties: either fuzzy and inconclusive (the picture could be of just about anything), or fraudulent. When a sharp, clear picture of a flying saucer does surface, it often proves to be a hoax. This happens so often that a researcher can almost count on a “good” flying saucer photograph eventually proving “bad.” This is especially true today when technical advances have made some forms of trick photography nearly undetectable.
This still leaves the question: why are there so few con- clusive photographs available?
THE GODS OF EDEN 21
This is not to say that clear photos of apparently genuine alien aircraft do not exist. A few do, and they can be found in various books written by responsible UFO researchers.*
5. Eyewitness testimony in UFO cases is inherently unre- liable. Such testimony is therefore insufficient evidence of extraterrestrial visitation.
Perhaps the most influential UFO critic as of this writing is Philip Klass, who has been aptly dubbed the “Sherlock Holmes of UFOlogy” for his exhaustive investigations. His book, UFOs Explained, won the Aviation/Space Writers award for the best book on space in 1974. In that award- winning book, Mr. Klass developed several principles. The first was:
UFOlogical Principle #1: Basically honest and intel- ligent persons who are suddenly exposed to a brief, unexpected event, especially one that involves an unfa- miliar object, may be grossly inaccurate in trying to describe precisely what they have seen.8
In one chapter of the Condon Report, the committee discusses what occurred after a Russian spacecraft, Zond IV, went awry and began its re-entry into Earth’s atmosphere on March 3, 1968. As the craft fell through the atmosphere and burned, it created a spectacular display for people on the ground. Eyewitnesses perceived the flaming debris as a majestic procession of fiery objects leaving behind a golden orange tail. Because of the objects’ great height, it was impossible to make out from the ground what the broken pieces actually were. It was only possible to see
This principle is sometimes true. It was demonstrated by a U.S. government-sponsored UFO study conducted between 1966 and 1968 under the direction of Edward U. Condon. Its published findings, which are usually called the “Condon Report,” are a milestone in UFO literature.
As noted earlier, apparently genuine extraterrestrial air- craft account for only a small percentage of the total number of UFOs reported. Most of those aircraft are seen at night. The majority of “close encounters” (human encounters with the spacecraft occupants) take place in rural non-recreational areas where there are very few people carrying cameras. The already poor chances of getting a good snapshot under those conditions are worsened by the fact that the vast majority of camera owners, including dedicated photo buffs, do not always carry their cameras with them. At any given moment, surely fewer than one person in every ten thousand is carry- ing a camera. UFOs do not compensate for this by making regular scheduled appearances over crowded vacation spots where most clicking cameras would be. Given these factors, we can expect that good genuine photos of extraterrestrial aircraft would be exceedingly rare commodities. Remember * For advice concerning the authenticity of specific UFO photographs, I
also that camera ownership has been widespread for only a short period of time: several decades.
recommend contacting the Mutual UFO Network, Inc. (MUFON), 103 Oldtowne Road, Seguin, Texas, 78155-4099, USA.
22 William Bramley THE GODS OF EDEN 23
them as brilliant and separate points of light. The Zond eyewitnesses who did not know what the flying objects IV debris created an effect identical to that of a brilliant were. With only minor deviations among them, all fourteen meteor display. observers gave accurate descriptions of what it was possible
Upon compiling eyewitness testimony of the Zond IV re- for them to actually see. The Committee concluded:
entry, it was discovered that some people “saw” more than there really was. If some of the erroneous observations had been taken at face value, some people would have concluded that the Zond IV debris was actually an intelligently controlled alien spacecraft. For example, five eyewitnesses reported that the lights were part of a “cigar- shaped” or rocket-shaped craft: a common UFO description. Three eyewitnesses said that the “object” had windows. One observer claimed that the “object” had made a vertical descent. Because of these blatant errors, Mr. Klass and others have understandably labeled all “cigar-shaped UFOs with bright windows” as meteors. The Condon Committee cited the Zond IV testimony as an example of why eye- witness reports are often inadequate to establish that a UFO is an extraterrestrial spacecraft.
Case closed? Not quite. In his UFOlogical Principle # 1 quoted above, Mr. Klass
In summary, we have a number of reports that are highly consistent with one another, and those differ- ences that do occur are no greater than would be expected from situational and perceptual differences. Many small discrepancies could be pointed out, espe- cially with regard to estimates of distance and direc- tion, but these are not great enough to affect the overall impression of the event.9
This demonstrates something very important that we can express in our own “UFOlogical Principle”:
Basically honest and intelligent persons who are suddenly exposed to a brief, unexpected event, includ- ing one that involves an unfamiliar object, will, in the majority of cases, be accurate in trying to describe precisely what they have seen.
states that eyewitnesses may be grossly inaccurate in trying That is why eyewitness testimony may be admissible in to describe precisely what they have seen. Significantly, he courts of law to convict or free a defendant even when did not say that eyewitnesses are usually inaccurate. This solid physical evidence is lacking. Eyewitness testimony is distinction takes on importance as we read further into the a perfectly valid and useful form of evidence.
Condon Report. The Condon Committee discovered that at least half of
the Zond IV eyewitnesses gave accurate, unembellished reports of the event. The observations of a “cigar-shaped craft with windows” came only from a minority. From the accurate reports, a careful UFO researcher would have been able to eliminate the erroneous descriptions and cor- rectly identify the Zond IV re-entry as debris or a meteoric phenomenon. The Committee also analyzed a wave of UFO reports triggered by several college students who had released four hot air balloons into the evening sky. The balloons were made of plastic dry cleaning bags; the hot air was generated by birthday candles suspended under- neath. The Committee analyzed the testimony of fourteen
6. Sophisticated listening devices have been pointed toward the heavens to pick up extraterrestrial communica- tions. So far, no such communications have been detected. This is further evidence that there is no intelligent life nearby.
Despite skepticism in many academic circles regarding extraterrestrial visitation, several well-funded attempts have been made to detect signals from outer space civilizations through the use of sophisticated radio antennas pointed toward the heavens. The fact that these efforts have reported- ly not detected any intelligent signals is viewed as additional proof that there are no alien civilizations nearby.
The problem with drawing such a conclusion is that radio antennas have many limitations. They are only able
24 William Bramley
to detect radio waves. There are many other bands along the electromagnetic spectrum4 that can carry communica- tion signals, such as microwave. What is to say that an extraterrestrial society, if it exists, would necessarily use radio waves for communication? We do not even know what lies beyond the two known ends of the electromagnetic spectrum. How can we be sure that there are not wavelengths in one of the two uncharted regions which are far superior for communication to anything we have detected so far? The reputed failure of radio antennas to pick up intelligent signals would only tell us that no one within range is using the electromagnetic wavelengths detectable by those antennas.
7. If so many “flying saucers” are visiting Earth, why are they not detected more often on radar?
Many outstanding UFO sightings have been confirmed on radar. This excellent radar evidence is usually dismissed by critics as operator error, as radar malfunction, or as false readings caused by natural phenomena. We would have even more radar evidence if it were not for the fact that radar operators are trained to disregard most radar anomalies because any number of things can create a false read. Spurious radar signals can be generated by such widely disparate phenomena as flocks of birds and severe weather conditions. Operators are taught to focus on those read- ings that pinpoint the type of objects they are tracking— usually human aircraft. If something unusual pops up on the screen and disappears, it will, more often than not, be ignored. A great many radar UFOs therefore go unre- ported.
*The “electromagnetic spectrum” is the range of wavelengths at which different forms of light may travel. At one end of the known spectrum are radio waves, which have long wavelengths. (Yes, radio waves are actually light waves. They become “sound” when translated by a receiver.) At the other end of the spectrum are gamma rays, which have short wavelengths. The range of light we can see with our eyes is limited to a very small band of the spectrum. Instruments have been invented to pick up and transmit along other wavelengths, such as infrared, x-ray, and microwave.
THE GODS OF EDEN 25
Radar detection of UFOs is being further eliminated by advances in technology. Many modern radar computers now automatically eliminate anomalous readings so that they are not even displayed on the radar screen. This makes an operator’s job easier, but at the cost of eliminating UFO detection. Mr. Klass comments:
Ironically, one of the several criteria used [by radar computers] to discriminate between real and spurious targets would filter out potential radar-UFOs even if they were legitimate extraterrestrial craft flying at hypersonic speeds…10
8. Many people have testified under hypnosis to being abducted by UFOs. Such testimony is inherently suspect because people who have never been abducted can be coached into creating seemingly realistic abduction “memo- ries” while under hypnosis.
If the UFO phenomenon consisted solely of occasional odd sights in the sky, it might be easy to dismiss. How- ever, many people have reported being kidnapped by UFO occupants. The abduction experiences tend to be remarkably similar: the victim sees a UFO (usually at night and often in a rural area); he is immobilized and taken aboard an alien spacecraft; he is given a physical examination lasting an hour or two by alien creatures; he is then released. Many abductees do not consciously remember their experiences afterwards. A typical victim may only see a UFO and then suddenly discover that two hours have passed with no recollection of what had occurred during the missing time. Researchers usually break through this amnesia with hypnosis.
It appears that the curious amnesia experienced by so many UFO abductees is deliberately induced by the UFO occupants as a method of preserving the aliens’ anonymity. Such mental tampering can indeed be done. During its infa- mous and highly publicized “mind control” experiments of the 1960’s and ‘70’s, the American CIA had developed effective techniques to bury memory and induce amnesia. With careful work, however, the buried memories could
26 William Bramley THE GODS OF EDEN 27
be recovered. As we shall see later, mental tampering with highly-charged subject of their abductions. For this and human victims has been a common activity associated with other reasons, I strongly recommend against the use of UFOs throughout all of history. hypnosis. Heavily occluded memory can and should be
To date, an enormous body of fascinating abduction testi- recovered while a subject is in a fully conscious state. mony has been gathered. Aspersions have been cast upon it Some UFO abduction experiences have been recovered in because of various experiments, such as those performed in just that fashion. 1977 at the Anaheim Memorial Hospital in California. It was 9. The mathematical odds of an extraterrestrial race discovered in Anaheim that individuals who allegedly had discovering Earth are too remote for it to be likely.
little prior knowledge of UFOs could be coached into creat- Several mathematical formulae have been devised to ing seemingly realistic abduction “memories” while under show how unlikely it is that Earth has been visited by hypnosis. This discovery has been used to cast doubt on the an extraterrestrial society. Such formulae are usually based validity of all abduction testimony obtained under hypnosis. upon theories of evolution, the number of planets which
The Anaheim experiments, however, miss the point and might support life, and the distances between planets and reveal nothing about the UFO phenomenon. They only galaxies. reaffirm what we already know about hypnosis. Such formulae are certainly interesting, but they should
It is true that a person’s memory can be distorted while never be considered conclusive. If something exists, it exists. he is under hypnosis, just as it can when a person is com- Trying to make it go away with a math formula will not make pletely conscious. On the other hand, it has been amply it any less real. demonstrated that hypnosis can be effective in recovering Keep in mind that we are unable to see any solid planets completely valid memory: it depends upon the skill of the beyond our own solar system, let alone determine if there is hypnotist and the mental state of the subject. A hypnotist any life on them. The human situation in this respect may be can coach a person who has never been aboard a train into likened to a colony of tiny ants whose range of observation creating a realistic “memory” of riding a train, but does that may only encompass a few acres. If that colony is situated mean that every hypnotic subject who remembers being on on a barren desert, the ants might conclude that the entire a train is guilty of fabrication? Of course not. Earth is a desolate wasteland, never dreaming of the vast
Admittedly, there are genuine problems with hypnosis. metropolis only a hundred miles away. Simply because Because the hypnotic subject is in a semiconscious state, we find our own solar system or section of the galaxy he or she may be more impressionable than normal. For this barren, it does not automatically follow that this is the case reason, American courts of law generally do not admit into everywhere. Another sector of the galaxy may be absolutely evidence testimony obtained under hypnosis. Another dan- teeming with intelligent life and there would be no way for ger with hypnosis is that a subject may recover a completely us out here on the distant edge of the Milky Way to know valid memory, but if the subject is continuously pushed except by guessing with theories that are ever-changing. For during hynosis to remember more, he may find his mental this reason, it is not particularly wise to disregard evidence “time track” getting scrambled. When that happens, he will of extraterrestrial visitation if it appears.
often start to “remember” additional “episodes” which did 10. OnlypeoplewithmentalproblemsbelieveinUFOs. not actually occur when or how remembered. Even so, the One unfortunate method some UFO critics use to attack original memory remains valid. evidence of extraterrestrial visitation is with psychological
Sadly, some UFO abductees have been hypnotized and theory. Because such a critic is absolutely certain that there rehypnotized beyond all measure of reason. They conse- have been no extraterrestrial aircraft in our skies, he may quently wind up with scrambled memories on the already resort to using defamatory psychological labels in an effort
28 William Bramley
to “explain” why many people will consider a possibility that the critic rejects. Such labels have run the gamut from a simple need for religious fulfillment to ambulatory schizo- phrenia. This dubious psychiatry has become regrettably fashionable in recent years. It hides the reality that most serious research into UFOs is as clinical and scientific as one could hope for. The majority of UFO researchers are as sane and rational as the critics who are so quick to bandy about the unflattering psychological labels. The true UFO debate centers around genuine scientific, intellectual, and historical issues, not emotional ones.
Another problem with using psychological “analysis” to “explain” popular and scientific interest in UFOs is that the tables can be turned. A scholar advocating the pos- sibility of extraterrestrial visitation can as easily, and as incorrectly, argue that those people who adamantly adhere only to prosaic explanations for UFO sightings in the face of contrary evidence are deeply afraid of something they cannot understand. Between the distinguished sideburns of a Ph.D., one could argue, may be a frightened child or willful adolescent desperately trying to handle the often confusing world around him by forcing everything to con- form to what he can intellectually and emotionally com- prehend.
As we can see, psychological mudslinging is very poor form in a scientific debate of this kind. It does no one any good, the labels are usually untrue, and it clouds the real issues. Intelligent and rational people are easily found on all sides of the UFO controversy.
11. UFO theories are money-making rackets designed to prey on the gullible.
It is a truism that there are two great crimes in our society: having money and not having money. Both are punished with equal ferocity.
One of the easiest ways to discredit an idea is to suggest that someone has gotten money for expressing it. Some UFO critics have made allusions to charlatans in the past who had duped people with strange ideas and who had become rich by preying on other people’s gullibility. Such allusions have been made in an effort to suggest that people who earn
THE GODS OF EDEN 29
money from UFO books or motion pictures are engaged in similar chicanery.
Please keep in mind that money itself has nothing to do with the validity of an idea. Money is an unpredictable com- modity which goes to the deserving and undeserving alike. A handful of people have indeed earned good incomes from books and films dealing with the UFO phenomenon. The number of people who have done so, however, is very small compared to the many thousands of teachers, lecturers, and writers who are paid, sometimes handsomely, to promulgate more conventional views of the world.
Even when it is clear that a few individuals have falsely reported or insincerely discussed UFOs to make money, the UFO phenomenon is not automatically discredited. Profit-making has been a motive in nearly all arenas of human endeavor since the earliest days of mankind. If we were to throw out everything to which someone has ever attached a profit motive, little would remain of our culture. Fortunately, the vast majority of UFO witnesses and researchers, rich and poor, are sincere in what they say and do.
12. UFO behavior does not conform to what we think intelligent extraterrestrial behavior ought to be.
UFOs are difficult to study due to their often bizarre and unpredictable natures. UFO behavior seems, on the one hand, to raise some of the most profound questions about life and existence, while on the other hand it seems to be the stuff of a Buck Rogers movie. This duality is difficult to reconcile, yet it is an inescapable part of the phenomenon. The UFO is both profound and kooky, as we shall see.
This factor is often used to discredit UFO reports. Some critics imply that if UFOs are extraterrestrial aircraft, they would manifest themselves in a more acceptable manner. Why, for example, have UFOs apparently kidnapped house- wives and implanted them with religious messages, but have never landed on the White House lawn and spoken to the U.S. President?
In one of his books, Philip Klass offered a $10,000 reward for conclusive proof of extraterrestrial visitation. To
30 William Bramley THE GODS OF EDEN 31
qualify for the reward, only a crashed spacecraft or other The problem with this tactic is that it does not always lead evidence which the U.S. National Academy of Sciences to truth, and can even lead away from it. A good example announces to be an affirmation of extraterrestrial intel- was the “Round Earth Theory” espoused by Christopher ligence would suffice; or, an extraterrestrial visitor must Columbus in the 15th century. In an age when many peo- appear before the United Nations General Assembly or on ple still believed the world to be flat, Columbus was part a national television program. The fact that no one has of a movement proclaiming that the Earth was round or received the reward is viewed by some people as added pear-shaped. As correct as Columbus was on this issue, he proof that Earth is not being visited by an extraterrestrial was wrong about many others. Columbus thought that he society. would encounter Asia when he crossed the Atlantic Ocean,
The problems with the $10,000 reward are quickly obvi- and falsely reported that he had done so when he returned ous. We have already discussed the poor odds of finding to Spain. We know today, of course, that Columbus had a crashed “saucer” or major piece of debris. What if the not found Asia at all—he had stumbled upon the North National Academy of Sciences is prone to argue a terrestrial American continent which is nowhere near Asia! Because origin to a smaller piece of hard evidence before admitting of this, we could easily scoff at Columbus’ phony evidence a nonterrestrial source? What if extraterrestrial pilots are and proclaim his “Round Earth Theory” a sham. After all, no more inclined to appear on television or at the United some of Columbus’ other ideas about the Earth were clearly Nations than a human pilot is disposed to address a council wrong, some absurdly so. of chimpanzees?* This type of situation occurs frequently, especially when
We can all certainly wish that UFOs would be more a science is young, as UFOlogy is today. False claims and cooperative, but until they are, the UFO phenomenon must erroneous evidence are often used to support fundamentally be studied on its own terms, not according to the behavior sound ideas. This is not to say that every new theory that we think it ought to exhibit. pops along is a valid one, or that bad evidence is the sign
13. In the past, a few UFO sightings touted as proof of a good theory. Many new theories prove bad. The trick of extraterrestrial visitation by top UFO researchers have is to weigh all of the evidence and to base a decision on proven to be earthly phenomena or hoaxes. Such errors that. In doing so, however, do not be surprised to encounter should cast doubt on all proclamations by UFO research- disagreement from others. It is a funny thing that two peo- ers. ple can look at identical information and arrive at opposite
Because the UFO phenomenon is so difficult to study, conclusions.
even the finest researchers will inevitably make errors, sometimes many of them. It is easy for someone to seize those mistakes and use them to discredit the entire subject. This tactic is often used by lawyers in courts of law, by statesmen during political debates, and even by scientists engaged in academic controversies.
14. Expressing theories of extraterrestrial visitation and of “ancient astronauts” is dangerous to society.
This argument is not worth dignifying in societies with traditions of open discussion and debate. Freedom of expres- sion is one of the bedrocks of a healthy culture. It allows that society and its people to grow. A wide diversity of ideas gives people more perspectives to choose from. Possessing such a choice is preferable to having intellectual options restricted. In an open society, many unconventional ideas come and go, but that is a small price to pay for the
* Another problem with the $10,000 offer was that a person had to pay Mr. Klass $100.00 per year to qualify. This reduced the UFO debate to the level of a crap shoot, where it does not belong. Few serious enormous benefits of leaving communication lines open UFO researchers accepted the offer, much to their credit
32 William Bramley
15. If there are so many UFOs, why have I never seen one?
I have never seen a UFO either. I have also never seen India, but the circumstantial evidence of its existence tends to make me think that India probably exists.
In addition to the above arguments, other means have been used to discredit UFO sightings. One method utilizes semantics. Some UFO critics say that they seek to find “rational” explanations for UFO sightings. By “rational” they mean explanations that portray a sighting as a natural or man-made object. This is an unfortunate use of the word “rational.” The word “rational” means “sane,” “well thought out,” or “logical.” Because sanity and logic must ultimately be based upon truth, a “rational” explanation of a phenomenon would be that explanation which most closely approximates the truth, whatever the truth may be. If a reported UFO is a misperceived natural phenomenon, then to explain it as such would indeed be rational. On the other hand, if a UFO is not a natural or man-made phenomenon, then to say that it is in the face of contrary evidence would not be rational at all.
Having said all of this, I still understand the reluctance of many people to take the UFO phenomenon seriously. It is a difficult booby-trapped subject. Some individuals who were once open-minded about UFOs have had the unfortunate experience of getting egg in their faces when they over-speculated about UFOs and were proven wrong. A good example was the public debacle surrounding the Martian moon, Phobos. About a decade ago, a number of scientific opinion leaders had speculated that Phobos was an artificial satellite placed in orbit around Mars by extraterrestrials. When a space probe later flew close enough to photograph Phobos, the Martian moon was shown to be little more than a large irregular piece of rock (although some of its orbital characteristics remain puzzling). Scien- tists and astronomers, because they survive on their good reputations, cannot endure too many speculative blunders of that kind. Many people who suffer such a tumble do not get back on the horse; instead they curse and attack
THE GODS OF EDEN 33
the beast which threw them. Competent researchers today are aware of these perils and they try to avoid speculating too far from the known facts.
Why do I take the possibility of extraterrestrial visitation seriously, even though I agree with the “natural” explanation for some UFO sightings still debated today? I do so for many reasons. Firstly, the UFO phenomenon has been observed and reported for centuries. I therefore reject the critics’ contention that UFOs are merely a bit of modern folklore. Secondly, the UFO phenomenon has been surprisingly con- sistent from location to location and from era to era. For example, some modern sightings of rocket or cigar-shaped UFOs mirror a UFO report from fifteenth-century Arabia. Thirdly, although it is true that some dubious “ancient astro- naut” evidence has been published, so has some truly out- standing evidence. The critics’ challenge that “extraordinary claims require extraordinary proof” has, to my mind, been met by some of that evidence. Fourthly, the “ancient astro- nauts” theory is hardly the “pseudoscientific nonsense” that it is sometimes accused of being. The “ancient astronauts” theory is a surprisingly logical hypothesis for shedding light on previously inexplicable historical data. I expect that it will one day be recognized as a true breakthrough even if it meets considerable opposition today. The fact that the theory arose from grass-roots research, and not from the ivied halls of a major university, means little. Any- one with an active and curious mind can make significant discoveries.
At this stage of my discussion, I may disappoint some readers by stating that it is not my purpose to write yet another tome which analyzes modern UFO sightings or which parades forth an array of ancient astronauts evidence simply to prove visitation. That has been adequately done elsewhere. If you remain a UFO skeptic, I recommend that you study other UFO literature before continuing with this book. The Gods of Eden is written for those people who already take seriously the possibility that Earth has been visited by an extraterrestrial society.
This book actually begins where Charles Fort left off. Mr. Fort speculated that Earth may be the property of an
34 William Bramley
THE GODS OF EDEN
extraterrestrial society. He further believed that humans
might be little more than slaves or livestock. As a result
of my own historical research launched from an entirely
different starting point,* I, too, arrived at a similar outra-
Human beings appear to be a slave race languishing on
an isolated planet in a small galaxy. As such, the human race
was once a source of labor for an extraterrestrial civilization
and still remains a possession today. To keep control over
its possession and to maintain Earth as something of a
prison, that other civilization has bred never-ending con-
flict between human beings, has promoted human spiritual
decay, and has erected on Earth conditions of unremitting
physical hardship. This situation has existed for thousands
of years and it continues today.
Having now laid myself wide open to ridicule for ex-
pressing such a hypothesis, I will proceed to share with you
a very different view of history than you have probably
Because I am risking a great deal by making this book
available, I ask my readers for two favors before they pass
judgment on what I have written:
may seem unscholarly and outrageous. Only by continuing
to read onward will the remarkable historical documentation
in support of those ideas truly take shape.
Hang on to your hat. We will now begin a startling
rollercoaster ride along the underbelly of history.
1. Please read the entire book carefully,
2. Please read the chapters in the order in which they
No idea, fact or historical episode I present stands entirely
on its own. Each becomes significant only when it is seen
within the entire context of history. The importance of what
you read early in the book will not become apparent until
you have continued to read much further. Conversely, the
significance of the later material will not be clear unless you
have read the early material first. The first 150 pages or so
of this book contain ideas, conclusions, and statements that
*I had not read any of Charles Fort’s works until I had already
completed the third draft of this book.
THE GODS OF EDEN 37
tamian region, Sumeria left records stating that humanlike
creatures of extraterrestrial origin had ruled early human
society as Earth’s first monarchs. Those alien people were
often thought of as “gods.” Some Sumerian “gods” were
said to travel into the skies and through the heavens in
flying “globes” and rocketlike vehicles. Ancient carvings
depict several “gods” wearing gogglelike apparel over their
eyes. Human priests acted as mere intermediaries between
the alien “gods” and the human population.
Not all Mesopotamian gods were humanlike extraterres-
trials. Some were obvious fabrications, and fictitious attri-
butes were often ascribed to the extraterrestrial humanlike
gods. Once the blatant fictions are stripped away, how-
ever, we discover within the Mesopotamian pantheon a
distinct class of beings who do indeed fit the “ancient
In order for me to better discuss these “high tech” “gods,” *
it will be necessary for me to invent a new term.
The word “god” alone contains too much undeserved awe.
Historical and modern-day testimony indicates that these
“gods” are as “human” in their behavior as you or I.
The term “ancient astronaut” pigeonholes them into
the distant past when, in fact, they appear to have
maintained a continuous presence all the way up until
The label “extraterrestrial” is too broad.
I cannot name the “gods” after any star or planet from
which they might hail because I will not speculate as to
their place of origin. Furthermore, it is conceivable that
the alleged ownership of Earth may have changed hands
over the millennia, in the same way that ownership of a
corporation can pass among different owners without the
public being aware of it.
The Gods of Eden
THE IDEA THAT human beings are a slave race owned
by an extraterrestrial society is not a new one. It was
expressed thousands of years ago in mankind’s earliest
recorded civilizations. The first of those civilizations was
Sumeria: a remarkably advanced society which arose in the
Tigris-Euphrates River valley between 5000 and 4000 B.C.,
and flourished as a major civilization by 3500 B.C. * Like
other ancient societies which arose in the Mesopo-
* Until recently, ancient Sumeria was thought to be the site of mankind’s
earliest city. Excavation has revealed a city in Jericho (near modem-
day Jerusalem) built as long ago as 7000 B.C. Almost nothing is known
about that city.
* For a detailed analysis of the apparent “high tech” nature of many ancient
Sumerian gods, I recommend Zecharia Sitchin’s five books, The Twelfth
Planet, The Stairway to Heaven, The Wars of Gods and Men, The Lost
Realms, and Genesis Visited. They are published by Avon Books of
38 William Bramley THE GODS OF EDEN 39
That leaves me to invent a new label based upon the “gods’ ” apparent relationship to the human race. For lack of anything better, I will simply refer to them as the “Custodial” society, meaning that specific extraterrestrial society (or succession of societies) which appears to have had ownership and custody of the Earth since prehistory. For brevity, I will often refer to them simply as “Custo- dians.”
What sort of creatures are these newly-labeled “Custo- dians”?
Historical records and modern testimony describe them as physically humanlike, racially diverse, and, most impor- tantly, very similar to human beings behaviorally. For example, some modern-era UFOs have exhibited adoles- cent prankishness by racing at airplanes as though they were going to collide, and then abruptly veering away just as impact seemed imminent: an apparent game of aerial “chicken.” At least one modern witness has alleg- edly been “zapped” by a UFO for no other apparent reason than malice. Ancient writers describe their extraterrestrial “gods” as being capable of love, hate, amusement, anger, honesty, and depravity. Ancient records and modern tes- timony alike would indicate that Custodial personalities run the entire gamut from saints to sinners, from the most degraded of despots to the most true-hearted of humanitarians. Sadly, it is the brutal and despotic element of their society that would appear to be the most influen- tial in the affairs of Earth, as we shall document.
The ancient Mesopotamian civilizations recorded a great deal of their history on clay tablets. Only a fraction of those tablets have survived, yet they manage to tell a remarkable story about the Custodial “gods” and their relationship to Homo sapiens.
According to the history inscribed on Mesopotamian tab- lets, there was a time when human beings did not exist at all. Instead, Earth was inhabited by members of the Custo- dial civilization. Custodial life on Earth was not pleasant, however. Custodial efforts to exploit the rich mineral and natural resources of Earth proved backbreaking. As one tablet tells us:
When the gods like men Bore the work and suffered the toil— The toil of the gods was great, The work was heavy, the distress was muck—I
The tablets described lives of endless drudgery as the “gods” carried out building, excavation, and mining opera- tions on Earth. The “gods” were not at all happy with their lot. They were prone to complaining, backstabbing, and rebellion against their leaders. A solution was needed, and it was found: to create a new creature capable of performing the same labors on Earth as the Custodians. With this purpose in mind, the Custodial “gods” created Homo sapiens (man).
Mesopotamian tablets tell a creation story in which a “god” is put to death by other “gods,” and the body and blood are then mixed into clay. Out of this concoction a human being is made. The new Earth creature is very similar in appearance to its Custodial creators.
In his book, The Twelfth Planet, author Zecharia Sitchin exhaustively analyzes the Sumerian creation stories. He concludes that the tale of a god’s body being mixed with clay may have referred to biological engineering. Mr. Sitchin supports his surprising conclusion by pointing to those Sumerian tablets which state that the first humans were bred in the wombs of female Custodial “gods.” According to the tablets, Custodians had male and female bodies, and they bred by sexual intercourse. In fact, ancient Mesopotamians stated that they provided ruling Custodial “gods” with human prostitutes. Mr. Sitchin believes that the “clay” was a special substance that could be inserted into a Custodial womb. That substance held the genetically-engineered cells of the new slave creature, Homo sapiens. Humans could apparently be bred in that fashion because they were physically very similar to Custodians. Interestingly, modern scientists have bred animals in a similar fashion, such as a zebra in the womb of a horse.
Ancient Mesopotamian tablets credit one “god” in par- ticular with supervising the genetic manufacture of Homo sapiens. That “god’s” name was Ea. Ea was reported to be
40 William Bramley
the son of a Custodial king who was said to rule another planet within the farflung Custodial empire. Prince Ea was known by the title, “EN.KI,” which means “lord [or prince] of Earth.” Ancient Sumerian texts reveal that Ea’s title was not entirely accurate because Ea was said to have lost his dominion over major portions of Earth to his half brother, Enlil, during one of the innumerable rivalries and intrigues that seemed to forever preoccupy Custodial rulers.
In addition to engineering Homo sapiens, Prince Ea is given credit in Mesopotamian tablets for many other accomplishments. If he was a real person, then Ea could 1. The oldest surviving creation stories were written circa best be described as a scientist and civil engineer of 4000-5000 B.C. It is more likely that a true record considerable talent. He is said to have drained marshes of mankind’s creation would survive 5000 to 25,000 by the Persian Gulf and to have replaced them with years than it would survive 295,000 years or more. fertile agricultural land. He supervised the construction of dams and dikes. Ea loved sailing and he built ships in which to navigate the seas. When it came time to create Homo sapiens, Ea demonstrated a good grasp of genetic engineering, but not, according to the tablets, without trial and error. Most importantly, Ea was described as goodhearted, at least in regard to his creation, Homo sapiens. Mesopotamian texts portray Ea as an advocate who spoke before Custodial councils on behalf of the new Earth race. He opposed many of the cruelties that other Custodial rulers, including his half- brother, Enlil, inflicted upon human beings. It would appear from Sumerian tablets that Ea did not intend Homo sapiens to be harshly treated, but his wishes in that regard were overruled by other Custodial leaders.
THE GODS OF EDEN 41
emerged, including that subspecies to which all human beings belong today: Homo sapiens sapiens. Homo sapiens sapiens appeared a mere 30,000 years ago—some say only 10,000 to 20,000 years ago. This raises an important ques- tion: were the Sumerians referring to Homo sapiens or Homo sapiens sapiens in their creation stories? There seems to be no firm answer. Excellent arguments have been made that they were referring to original Homo sapiens. I tend to favor the argument that they were probably referring to modern Homo sapiens sapiens, for the following reasons:
2. If the Sumerians were describing the creation of Homo sapiens sapiens, later events described in Mesopotam ian tablets fall within a more plausible time frame.
3. The Mesopotamians themselves were members of the subspecies Homo sapiens sapiens. They were primarily concerned with how they themselves had come into existence. In their various works, ancient Sumerians depicted hairy animal-like men who appear to be a more primitive subspecies of Homo sapiens. The Sumerians clearly viewed those primitive men as an entirely different race of creature.
As we have just seen, our ancient and highly civilized ancestors told a very different story of humanity’s emer- gence on Earth than we tell today. The Mesopotamians were clearly not schooled in Darwinian theories of evolu- tion! Nevertheless, there is some surprising anthropological evidence to support the Sumerian version of prehistory.
According to modern-day analyses of the fossil record, Homo sapiens emerged as a distinct animal species some- where between 300,000 B.C. and 700,000 B.C. As time progressed, a number of subspecies of Homo sapiens
If the Mesopotamian creation stories are based upon actual events, and if those stories refer to the creation of Homo sapiens sapiens, we would expect Homo sapiens sapiens to appear very suddenly in history. Remarkably, that is precisely what happened. The anthropological rec- ord reveals that Homo sapiens sapiens appeared on Earth abruptly, not gradually. F. Clark Howell and T. D. White of the University of California at Berkeley had this to say:
These people [Homo sapiens sapiens] and their initial material culture appear with seeming suddenness just over 30,000 years ago, probably earlier in eastern than in western Europe.2
42 William Bramley THE GODS OF EDEN
The mystery of this abrupt appearance is deepened by another puzzle: why did the more primitive Neanderthal man (Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) suddenly vanish at You have slaughtered a god together the same time that modern Homo sapiens sapiens appeared? with his personality [spiritual being] I Evolution is not that fast. Messrs. Howell and White pon- have removed your heavy work, I dered this question and concluded: have imposed your toil on man.5
… the utter, almost abrupt disappearance of Nean- derthal people remains one of the enigmas and critical problems in studies of human evolution.3
The Encyclopedia Britannica concurs:
The factors responsible for the disappearance of the Neanderthal peoples are an important problem to which there is unfortunately still no clear solution.4
Custodial rulers knew that they needed to keep spiritual beings permanently attached to human bodies in order to animate those bodies and make them intelligent enough to perform their labors:
In the clay god [a spiritual entity] and Man [physical body of Homo sapiens] shall be bound, to a unity brought together; So that to the end of days
The Sumerian creation stories do offer a clear solution the Flesh and the Soul
which in a god have ripened— 6
to the riddle, but it is one that many people would have a difficult time accepting: the sudden appearance of Homo that Soul in a blood-kinship be bound;
sapiens sapiens, accompanied by the abrupt disappearance of Neanderthal man, was caused by intelligent intervention. It might be conjectured that Neanderthal man was either exterminated or hauled off the Earth to make room for the new slave race, and perhaps to prevent breeding between the two subspecies. Whatever the precise truth of this might be, we do know two facts with certainty: modern anthropology has discovered a sudden replacement of Neanderthal man with modern man, and Mesopotamian records state that intelligent planning by an extraterres- trial race lay somewhere behind that dramatic event.
In Chapter 2, we discussed the fact that humans appear to be spiritual beings animating physical bodies. The spirit seems to be the true source of awareness, personality, and intelligence. Without a spiritual entity to animate it, a human body would be little more than a reactive animal, or dead. The people of ancient Mesopotamia thoroughly understood this critical fact when they mentioned a spiritual being in connection with the creation of Homo sapiens:
The tablets are silent about which “personalities” were chosen to animate the new slave bodies. Based upon how things are done in human society, we might guess that the Custodial society used criminals, deviates, prisoners of war, detested social and racial groups, nonconform- ists, and other undesirables to obtain the spiritual beings it needed to animate the new slave race of Earth. Humans were certainly treated like convicts sentenced to hard labor:
With picks and spades they [human beings] built the shrines,
They built the big canal banks. For food for the peoples, for the sustenance of [the gods].7
As beasts of burden, humans were brutally treated by their extraterrestrial masters. The clay tablets tell of vast and cata- strophic cruelty perpetrated by the Custodians against their human servants. Cold-blooded population control measures were carried out frequently:
44 William Bramley
Twelve hundred years had not yet passed When the land extended and the peoples multiplied. The land was bellowing like a bull, The god got disturbed with their uproar. Enlil [half-brother and rival of Ea] heard their
noise* And addressed the great gods, “The noise of mankind has become too intense for
me, With their uproar I am deprived of sleep. Cut off supplies for the peoples, Let there be a scarcity of plant-life to satisfy their
hunger. Adad [another Custodian] should withhold his rain, And below, the flood [the regular flooding of the
land which made it fertile] should not come up from
the abyss. Let the wind blow and parch the ground, Let the clouds thicken but not release a downpour, Let the fields diminish their yields,
There must be no rejoicing among them.”*
* These lines suggest that Enlil had lived more than 1200 years. A similar longevity is attributed to Ea and other Custodial rulers. Many people find it difficult to believe that any creature, including an extra- terrestrial, could live that long.
THE GODS OF EDEN 45 An Assyrian tablet adds:
“Command that there be a plague, Let Namtar diminish their noise. Let disease, sickness, plague and pestilence Blow upon them like a tornado.” They commanded and there was plague Namtar diminished their noise. Disease, sickness, plague and pestilence Blew upon them like a tornado.9
The tablets describe ghastly conditions in which food supplies were cut off, in which diseases were laid upon the people that constricted wombs and prevented childbirth, and in which starvation became so rampant that human beings were forced to resort to cannibalism. Lesser diseases, such as one resembling influenza, were also visited upon Homo sapiens, suggesting that the Custodial “gods” understood and engaged in biological warfare.
When this genocide did not produce a sufficient drop in the human population, the Custodians resumed it. Eventual- ly, a decision was made to destroy the human race entirely with a great flood.
Many archaeologists today believe that there was a cata- clysmic flood in the Near East thousands of years ago. One description of the “Great Flood” is found in the Babylonian “Epic of Gilgamesh,” which predates the Bible.
According to the Epic, a Babylonian named Utnapishtim was approached by Prince Ea, who opposed the decision to destroy his creation, Homo sapiens. Ea told Utnapishtim
The surprising longevity attributed to Custodial rulers may perhaps be explained by Sumerian spiritual beliefs. The Sumerians believed that the other “gods” planned to cause a deluge to wipe out
the human race. Ea, who is described in other writings as a master shipbuilder and sailor, gave Utnapishtim instructions on how to build a boat which could survive the flood. Utnapishtim followed Ea’s directions and, with the help of friends, completed the vessel before the flooding began.
that a “personality” (spiritual being) survives the death of a physical body and that it is possible to identify the “personality” after it has abandoned one body and taken on a new one (in the same way that one can identify a driver who jumps out of one automobile and climbs into another). A “personality” could therefore hold the same political or social position body after body, as long as the “personality” could be identified. When Sumerians gave Custodians an extensive Utnapishtim then loaded the boat with his gold, family, longevity, they were not necessarily suggesting that a single Custodial and livestock, along with craftsmen and wild animals, and body survived for centuries; in many cases they appear to have been
saying that a Custodial “personality” held a political position for a very long time even though it may have done so through a succession of bodies.
hoisted off to sea. Babylonian and Assyrian tablets relate that just prior to
46 William Bramley THE GODS OF EDEN 47
flooding the land, the Custodians scorched it with flame. abundant paradise known as the Garden of Eden. Modern Then they flooded the region by causing a long rainstorm versions of the Bible place the Garden of Eden in the and by breaking the intricate system of dams and dikes that Tigris-Euphrates region of Mesopotamia. had been built in Mesopotamia to control the erratic flooding The Old Testament tells us that Adam (first man) was of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. designed to be a servant. His function was to till the soil
The Gilgamesh Epic relates that Utnapishtim and his and to care for the lush gardens and crops owned by his crew survived the ordeal. When it was over, they sought “God.” As long as Adam and Eve accepted their servi- out dry land by releasing a series of three birds; if a bird ent status and obeyed their ever-present masters, all of did not return to the boat, Utnapishtim would know that it their physical needs would be met and they would be had found dry land nearby on which to alight. permitted to remain in their “paradise” indefinitely. There
Once back on solid ground, Utnapishtim was joined by was, however, one unpardonable sin that they must never several Custodians returning from out of the sky. Instead of commit. They must never attempt to seek certain types destroying the survivors, a degree of leniency prevailed and of knowledge. Those forbidden forms of knowledge are the Custodians transported the surviving humans to another symbolized in the story as two trees: the “tree of knowl- region to live. edge of good and evil” and the “tree of life.” The first
The tale of Utnapishtim should ring a bell with anyone “tree” symbolizes an understanding of ethics and justice. who is familiar with the Biblical story of Noah and the Ark. The second “tree” symbolizes the knowledge of how to That is because the tale of Noah, luce many other stories regain and retain one’s spiritual identity and immortal- in the Old Testament, is taken from older Mesopotamian ity. writings. Biblical authors simply altered names and changed Adam and Eve obeyed the commandments of their mas- the many “gods” of the original writings into the one “God” ters and lived in material bliss until another party entered the or “Lord” of the Hebrew religion. The latter change was an scene. The intervening party was symbolized in the story as unfortunate one because it caused a Supreme Being to be a snake. The serpent convinced Eve to partake of the “fruit” * blamed for the brutal acts that earner writers had attributed from the “tree of knowledge of good and evil.” Eve followed to the very «n-God-like Custodians. the serpent’s suggestion, as did Adam. “God” (i.e., Custodial
Early Mesopotamian writings gave us another famous Old leadership) became immediately alarmed: Testament story: the tale of Adam and Eve. The Adam and
Eve narrative is also derived from earlier Mesopotamian sources which described life under the Custodial “gods.” The “God” or “Lord God” of the Bible’s Adam and Eve story can therefore be translated to mean the Custodial rulers of Earth. The story of Adam and Eve is unique in that it is entirely symbolic, and through its symbols it provides an intriguing account of early human his- tory.
According to the Bible, Adam, who symbolizes first man, was created by “God” from the “dust of the ground.” This idea reflects the older Mesopotamian belief that Homo sapiens was created partially from “clay.” Adam’s wife, Eve, was also created artificially. They both lived in an
And the Lord’God said. Look, the man has become as one of us, knowing good from evil: and now, what if he puts forth his hand, and takes also of the tree of life, and eats, and lives forever?
The above passage reveals an important truth echoed by many religions. A true understanding of ethics, integrity,
* This fruit is usually portrayed as an apple, but that is the invention of later artists. The Bible itself does not mention a specific fruit because the “fruit” was only a symbol to represent knowledge.
48 William Bramley
and justice is a prerequisite to regaining one’s spiritual I freedom and immortality. Without a foundation in ethics, full spiritual recovery becomes nothing more than a pipe dream.
The Custodians clearly did not want mankind to begin traveling the road to spiritual recovery. The reason is obvi- ous. The Custodial society wanted slaves. It is difficult to make thralls of people who maintain their integrity and sense of ethics. It becomes impossible when those same individ- uals are uncowed by physical threats due to a reawakened grasp of their spiritual immortality. Most importantly, if spiritual beings could no longer be trapped in human bodies, but could instead use and abandon bodies at will, there would be no spiritual beings available to animate slave bodies. As I we recall, Sumerian tablets revealed a Custodial intention to permanently attach spiritual beings to human bodies. Early itually free. man’s attempt to escape this spiritual bondage by “eating” A common misinterpretation of the Adam and Eve story from the Biblical “trees” therefore had to be stopped… is that the “original sin” had something to do with sex or and fast! nudity. This confusion comes from that part of the story in
THE GODS OF EDEN 49
toil will you eat its yield for all the days of your life: Thorns, too, and thistles will it bring forth to you;
as you eat the plants from the field: By the sweat of your face will you eat bread, until
which Adam and Eve eat from the “tree of knowledge of Therefore the Lord God sent him [Adam] forth from good and evil” and immediately become ashamed of their the garden of Eden, to till the ground from which he nakedness. It was not nudity, however, that shamed them. had been taken. Adam and Eve were mortified by what their nakedness re-
you return to the ground; for out of it were you taken: for dust you are and to dust will you return.
This was a highly effective way to deal with Adam’s and Eve’s “original sin.” The above passage indicates that Cus- todial rulers intended to make humans live their entire lives and die without ever rising above the level of arduous material existence. That would leave humans little time to seek out the understanding they needed to become spir-
So he drove out the man; and he placed at the east of the garden of Eden cherubim [angels], and a flaming sword which turned every way, to shield the way [prevent access] to the tree of life.
The “flaming sword” symbolizes the no-nonsense mea- sures that the Custodians undertook to ensure that genuine spiritual knowledge would never become available to the human race.
To further prevent access to such knowledge, Homo sapiens was condemned to an additional fate:
AndtoAdam,he [God]said,Becauseyouhave listened to the urgings of your wife, and have eaten from the tree of which I commanded you not to, saying, You shall not partake of it: cursed is the ground for you, in
presented. Ancient Mesopotamian records depict human be- ings stark naked when performing tasks for their Custodial masters. Custodians, on the other hand, were depicted as be- ing fully clothed. The implication is that Adam and Eve felt degraded by their nakedness because it was a sign of their enslavement—not because being naked in itself is bad.
As we have seen, early humans were reported to be a constant headache to their Custodial masters. The slave creatures not only disobeyed their rulers, they often banded together and rebelled. This made human unity undesirable to Earth’s Custodial rulers—it was better that humans be disunited. One of the ways in which the problem of human unity was solved is described in the Biblical story of the Tower of Babel—a tale which also has its roots in early Mesopotamian writings.
According to the Bible, this is what happened after the Great Flood:
50 William Bramley THE GODS OF EDEN 51
And the whole earth spoke one language, and used the same words.
And it came to pass, as they migrated from the east, that they found a plain in the land of Sh’-nar [Babylonia: a region in Mesopotamia] and settled there.
And they said, Come on, let us build ourselves a city and a tower, whose top will reach the skies; and let us make a name for ourselves, otherwise we will be scattered all over the face of the earth.
And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower, which the men were building.
And the Lord said, Look, the people are united, and they have all one language; and this they begin to do; and now nothing will stop them from doing what they take in their minds to do.
Come on, let us go down, and there confuse their lan- guage so that they cannot understand one another’s speech.
So the Lord scattered them abroad from there all over the face of the earth: and they stopped building the city.
Therefore the name of it is called Babel: because the Lord did there confuse the language of the entire earth: and from there did the Lord scatter them abroad over the face of the whole Earth.
In The Twelfth Planet, Mr. Sitchin offers an intriguing analysis of the Tower of Babel story. According to his research, the word “name” in the above passage (“let us make a name for ourselves”) was a translation of the ancient word shem. The Bible’s translation of shem may be in error, says Mr. Sitchin, because shem comes from the root word shamah, which means “that which is highward.” Ancient shems are the obelisk monuments that were so prevalent in many ancient societies. Those shems, or obelisks, were copied after the rocket-shaped vehicles in which the Custo- dial “gods” were said to fly. Mr. Sitchin therefore believes
that the word shem in Mesopotamian texts should be trans- lated to “sky vehicle,” meaning rocketship. When this trans- lation is placed into the above Biblical passage, we find that the ancient Babylonians were not trying to make a name (i.e., reputation) for themselves; they were trying to make a “sky vehicle” or rocket! The implication is that they wanted to match the technological might of their hated Custodial masters and thereby put an end to their enslavement. The tower itself may have been intended as the launching pad for a human shem.
If Mr. Sitchin’s provocative analysis is accurate, we would better understand why the Custodial entities became so alarmed by the Tower of Babel and felt such a compelling need to thoroughly disunite the human race.
Ancient stories and legends from other parts of the world indirectly support the Tower of Babel story. The Japanese people, Alaskan Eskimos, South Americans, and Egyptians all have traditions stating that their earliest forefathers had either been transported by humanlike “gods” to where the modern descendants live today, or that those “gods” had been the source of the local languages or writing.
It may be difficult to accept Mesopotamian and Bibli- cal statements that ancient human society had been split apart thousands of years ago in a “divide and conquer” effort by flying extraterrestrials, even though the “divide and conquer” technique is frequently used by military and political leaders on Earth during wartime. Interestingly, using the technique was advocated a number of years ago by a distinguished Yale professor if Earth should ever colonize other planets. The good professor suggested that Earth could control another inhabited planet by pitting one native group against another.
If we compare ancient and modern ideas about how mankind came into existence, we find two very different versions. The ancient version is that an extraterrestrial soci- ety had come to possess Earth and sought to exploit the planet’s resources. To make the exploitation easier, a work race was created: Homo sapiens. Humans were treated as livestock and were frequently butchered when they became too numerous or troublesome. To preserve Homo sapiens
52 William Bramley
OF ALL THE animals revered in ancient human societies,
none were as prominent or as important as the snake. The
snake was the logo of a group which had become very
influential in early human societies of both Hemispheres.
That group was a disciplined Brotherhood dedicated to the
dissemination of spiritual knowledge and the attainment
of spiritual freedom. This Brotherhood of the Snake (also
known as the “Brotherhood of the Serpent,” but which I
will often refer to as simply the “Brotherhood”) opposed the
enslavement of spiritual beings and, according to Egyptian
writings, it sought to liberate the human race from Custodial
bondage.* The Brotherhood also imparted scientific knowl-
as a slave race and to prevent future rebellion, spiritual
knowledge was repressed, human beings were scattered
geographically into different linguistic groups, and condi-
tions were created to make physical survival on Earth an
all-consuming chore from birth until death. This arrange-
ment was to be maintained indefinitely for as long as the
Custodial society possessed Earth. In contrast, the modern
view is that human beings had evolved accidentally from
“star stuff” into slime, into fishes, into monkeys, and finally
into people. The modern view actually seems more fanciful
than the ancient one.
In the story of Adam and Eve we noted the appearance
of a snake. The serpent was said to be “God’s” enemy,
Satan, who had literally transformed himself into a reptile.
The Bible suggests that snakes are feared and disliked
today because of Satan’s alleged transformation back in
the Garden of Eden. However, it should be remembered
that the Biblical Adam and Eve story is entirely symbolic.
The snake, too, was a symbol, not an actual reptile.
To determine what the Biblical snake represented, we
must go back once again to older pre-Biblical sources.
When we do so, we discover that the snake symbol had
two very important meanings in the ancient world: it was
associated with the Custodial “god” Ea, reputed creator and
benefactor of mankind, and it also represented an influential
organization with which Ea was associated.
* Because Brotherhood teachings included physical healing through
spiritual means, the snake also came to symbolize physical healing.
Today the snake is featured on the logo of the American Medical
54 William Bramley
edge and encouraged the high aesthetics that existed in many ancient societies. For these and other reasons, the snake had become a venerated symbol to humans and, according to Egyptian and biblical texts, an object of Custodial hatred. When we look to discover who founded the Brother- hood, Mesopotamian texts point right back to that rebellious “god,” Prince Ea. Ancient Mesopotamian tablets relate that Ea and his father, Anu, possessed profound ethical and spiritual knowledge. This was the same knowledge that was later symbolized as trees in the Biblical Adam and Eve story. In fact, the Biblical tree symbol came from pre-Biblical Mesopotamian works, such as one showing a snake wrapped around the trunk of a tree, identical to later portrayals of the snake in Eden. From the tree in the Mesopotamian depiction hang two pieces of fruit. To the right of the tree is the half-moon symbol of Ea; to the left is the planet symbol of Anu. The drawing indicates that Ea and Anu were associated with the snake and its teachings. This connection is affirmed by other Mesopotamian texts which describe Anu’s palace in the “heavens” as being guarded by a god of the Tree of Truth and a god of the Tree of Life. In one instance, Ea reportedly sent a human to be educated in that very knowledge:
THE GODS OF EDEN 55
snake as its logo because Ea’s first home on Earth was said to have been constructed by a serpent-infested swampland which Ea called Snake Marsh. Another possible explanation for the snake logo is offered by Mr. Sitchin who says that the biblical word for “snake” is nahash, which comes from the root word NHSH, meaning “to decipher, to find out.”
Despite all of their reported good intentions, the legendary Ea and early Brotherhood clearly failed to free the human race. Ancient Mesopotamian, Egyptian, and biblical texts relate that the “snake” was quickly defeated by other Cus- . todial factions. The Bible informs us that the serpent in the Garden of Eden was overcome before it was able to complete its mission and give Adam and Eve the “fruit” from the second “tree.” Ea (who was also symbolized as a snake) was banished to Earth and was extensively villainized by his opponents to ensure that he could never again secure a widespread following among human beings. Ea’s title was changed from “Prince of Earth” to “Prince of Darkness.” He was labeled other horrible epithets: Satan, the Devil, Evil Incarnate, Monarch of Hell, Lord of Vermin, Prince of Liars, and more. He was portrayed as the mortal enemy of a Supreme Being and as the keeper of Hell. People were taught that his only intentions were to spiritually enslave everyone and that everything bad on Earth was caused by him. Humans were encouraged to
Adapa [the name of an early man], thou art going detect him in all of his future lives (“incarnations”) and to
before Anu, the King; The road to Heaven thou wilt take. When to Heaven thou has ascended, and hast ap-
proached the gate of Anu, the “Bearer of Life” and the “Grower of Truth” at the gate of Anu will be standing.1
We therefore find Ea designated as the reputed culprit who tried to teach early man (Adam) the way to spiritual freedom. This suggests that Ea intended his creation, Homo sapiens, to be suited for Earth labor, but at some point he changed his mind about using spiritual enslavement as a means. If Ea was a true historical personality as the Sumerians claimed, then he was the probable leader of the Brotherhood at its founding on Earth. The Brotherhood may have adopted the
destroy him and his creations whenever he was discovered. All beliefs and practices named after his various appellations (“Satanism,” “Devil Worship,” etc.) were to be made so horrific and degrading that no right-thinking person would (or should) have anything to do with them. He and his followers were to be viewed by human beings with nothing but the utmost loathing.
This is not to say that Ea was actually portrayed by ancient Sumerians as a saint. He was not. He was described in Mesopotamian texts with distinct character flaws. If Ea was a real person, then he appears to have been a genius who could get things done, but who was often careless about anticipating the consequences of how he went about accomplishing his goals. By engineering a work race (Homo
56 William Bramley
sapiens), Ea wound up giving his enemies a powerful tool
of spiritual repression. Ea then appears to have compounded
the blunder by founding and/or empowering the early Snake
Brotherhood which, after its reported defeat, continued to
remain a powerful force in human affairs, but under the
domination of the very Custodial factions that Ea and the
original Brotherhood were said to have opposed. History
indicates that the Brotherhood was turned under its new Cus-
todial “gods” into a chilling weapon of spiritual repression
and betrayal, despite the efforts of many sincere humanitar-
ians to bring about true spiritual reform through Brotherhood
channels all the way up until today. By reportedly creating
a work race and the Brotherhood of the Snake, the “god”
Ea had helped build a trap for billions of spiritual beings
As we shall now begin to carefully document, the Brother-
hood of the Snake has been the world’s most effective tool
for preserving mankind’s status as a spiritually ignorant
creature of toil throughout all of history. During all of that
time, and continuing today, the Brotherhood and its network
of organizations have remained intimately tied to the UFO
phenomenon. This corruption of the Brotherhood, and the
overwhelming effect it would have on human society, was
already apparent by the year 2000 B.C. in ancient Egypt—
the next stop on our journey.
The Pyramid Builders
PERHAPS THE MOST impressive and controversial relics to
come out of ancient times are the pyramids of Egypt. The
remains of at least seventy to eighty of those structures are
scattered all along the upper Nile region as silent reminders
of a once powerful civilization.
The largest and most famous Egyptian pyramid is the
Pyramid of Cheops (the “Great Pyramid”). It stands today
beside several others on an elevated plateau in Gizeh, Egypt.
The dimensions of this pyramid are impressive. It towers
nearly five hundred feet high and covers thirteen acres of
land at its base. Built of stones weighing an average of
21/2 tons each, the entire structure is estimated to weigh
A remarkable characteristic which makes the Great Pyra-
mid one of the “Seven Wonders of the Ancient World” is
58 William Bramley THE GODS OF EDEN 59
the precision of its construction. The stones of the pyramid were cut so perfectly that a sheet of paper cannot be inserted between the blocks in many places. This precision, coupled with the enormous bulk of the structure, helps account for the pyramid’s long life and durability. The pyramid was built to last.
Perhaps the greatest mystery surrounding the Great Pyra- mid was its purpose. Most pyramids are thought to have been burial tombs. History tells us that the Great Pyramid was employed for other purposes, as well. For example, some of its inner chambers had been used for mystical and religious rites. Yet a third and infinitely more practical use can also be found:
The Great Pyramid is an excellent marker for aerial navigation.
as an aerial navigation marker than it is today because it found at the base of the Great Pyramid, the limestone casing had been
had been covered with a casing of fine white limestone.
The limestone blocks were carved so precisely that the pyramid looked from a distance as though it had been hewn from a single white rock. The limestone reflected the sun, making the pyramid visible from a much greater distance.*
The unique characteristics of the pyramids at Gizeh raise interesting questions about those monuments. Since they serve an aerial navigation function so well, were they built at least partially for that purpose? If they were, who could have possibly had use for them in 2000 B.C.? A possible clue to the riddle may lie on the moon.
On November 22, 1966, the Washington Post ran a front-page headline proclaiming: “Six Mysterious Statuesque Shadows Photographed on the Moon by Orbiter.” The Post story, which was picked up later by the Los Angeles Times, described a lunar photograph snapped two days earlier by U.S. space probe Orbiter 2 as it passed twenty to thirty miles above the moon’s surface. The photograph seems to reveal six spires arranged in a purposeful geometrical pattern inside a small portion of the Sea of Tranquility. The pointedness of the lunar objects’ shadows indicates that they are all either cone- or pyramid-shaped. Although the official NASA press release mentioned nothing unusual about the photograph, other people found the picture remarkable. Dr. William Blair of the Boeing Institute of Biotechnology stated:
The four sides of the Great Pyramid precisely face the four compass points: north, south, east and west. The sides are directed so exactly that the widest deviation is only one twelfth of a degree on the east side. In addition, the Great Pyramid is situated less than five miles south of the northern thirtieth parallel. The Great Pyramid can there- fore be used as a reference point for sectioning the entire planet into a three-dimensional grid of 30-, 60-, and 90- degree angles with the North Pole, South Pole, Equator and center of the earth as reference points. This feature is especially useful because the Great Pyramid is located at the center of the Earth’s land masses. Knowing only the dimensions of the Earth and having a method of cal- culating how far one has traveled, one can very effectively navigate, especially by air, from the Great Pyramid to any point on Earth using the 30-60-90 degree grids and the compass directions indicated by the pyramid. The only deviation comes from the fact that the Earth is not a per- fect sphere, but is slightly flattened at the poles and wid- ened at the Equator. However, this deviation is so slight, amounting to only 26.7 miles (.0003367 or the fraction 1/298), that it is easily compensated for. Interestingly, when the Great Pyramid was first built, it was even more valuable “Most of the limestone is gone today. Except for a few blocks
If the cuspids [cone-shaped spires] really were the result of some geophysical event it would be natu- ral to expect to see them distributed at random. As a result, the triangulation would be scalene [three unequal sides] or irregular, whereas those concerning the lunar object lead to a basilary system, with coor- dinate x, y, z to the right angle, six isosceles triangles and two axes consisting of three points each.’
excavated away from the pyramids beginning in the first millennium A.D.
60 William Bramley
THE GODS OF EDEN 61
artificial. If they are artificial, it is clear from the photo- graphs that they have undergone a fair degree of erosion. Only a closer look during future missions to the moon and Mars will resolve the controversy. The objects are certainly worth closer investigation because the moon has hosted UFO phenomena for centuries, including inside the Sea of Tranquility.3
Even if the Martian or lunar objects prove to be natu- ral formations, that would not change the clearly artifi- cial nature of Earth’s pyramids. This compels us to return our focus to the pyramids of Egypt. For whom did the ancient Egyptians say they were building their magnificent structures?
Like the ancient Mesopotamians, the early ancient Egyp- tians claimed to be living under the rule of humanlike extra- terrestrial “gods.” The Egyptians wrote that their “gods” traveled into the heavens in flying “boats.” (These “boats” were later mythologized to explain the movement of the sun.) The “gods” of Egypt’s early period were said to be literal flesh-and-blood creatures with the same needs for food and shelter as human beings. Actual homes had been built for them. Those homes were furnished with human servants who later became Egypt’s first priests. According to renowned historian James Henry Breasted, the earliest ser- vants of the “gods” were laymen who performed their duties without ceremony or ritual. Their jobs consisted simply of providing the “gods” with “… those things which formed the necessities and luxuries of an Egyptian of wealth and rank at that time: plentiful food and drink, fine clothing, music and dance.”*
Many people identify ancient Egyptian religion with the worship of animals. This type of veneration was unknown during the early period of the Egyptian civilization. Accord- ing to Professor Breasted:
An interesting compilation of unusual lunar phenomena is found in NASA Technical Report R-277 entitled “Chronological Catalog of Reported Lunar Events” by Barbara M. Middlehurst. It briefly lists 579 unusual lunar sightings considered to be reliable beginning in the year 1540 and ending in 1967. It is currently available from The Sourcebook Project.
In Argosy magazine, Soviet space engineer Alexander Abromov went a step further by stating:
The distributiori of these lunar objects is similar to the plan of the Egyptian pyramids constructed by Pharaohs Cheops, Chephren, and Menkaura at Gizeh, near Cairo. The centers of the spires of this lunar “abaka” [arrangement of pyramids] are arranged in precisely the same way as the apices [tips] of the three great pyramids.2
Assuming Drs. Blair and Abromov have not grievously miscalculated, it appears that some of the pyramids of Earth may be part of a permanent marking system that extends to more than one planet of our solar system. The system may even extend to Mars. Pyramidlike objects have been photographed on the Martian surface. Pictures snapped by the U.S. Viking mission in 1976 show the Martian region of Cydonia to contain possible pyramidlike objects and what appears to be a huge sculpted face nearby staring skyward. It is easy to argue that the Martian pyramids and face are natural formations not unlike some found on Earth; however, one, and possibly two, other “faces” have been discovered elsewhere on Mars with strikingly similar features, such as the “helmet,” cheek notches, and indentation above the right eye.* Perhaps equally interesting is the fact that one pyramid in Cydonia has a side pointing due north towards the Martian spin axis. Is this alignment chance, or is there a connection to the Great Pyramid at Gizeh which is also aligned according to precise compass directions?
It is, of course, possible that the objects on the moon and Mars will prove to be rock formations after all. Available photographs seem inadequate to establish the formations as
*For an interesting scientific evaluation of the Martian objects, I rec- ommend Unusual Martian Surface Features by Vincent DiPietro, Greg Molenaar, and John Brandenburg. It is published by Mars Research. Please see bibliography for address.
62 William Bramley THE GODS OF EDEN
… the hawk, for example, was the sacred animal of the sun-god, and as such a living hawk might have a place in the temple, where he was fed and kindly treated, as any such pet might be; but he was not worshipped, nor was he the object of an elaborate ritual as later.4
The records of ancient Egypt have given us many clues as
to who might have had use for a permanent marking system
to navigate various planets of our solar system: the Custo-
dial society. The first pyramid of Egypt was designed by
Imhotep, Prime Minister to Egyptian king Zoser-Neterkhet.
Imhotep was said to be the son of Egypt’s most important
Custodial “god” during his day: Ptah. Egyptian lore writ-
ten after Imhotep’s time adds that Imhotep had received
the pyramid design in a plan “which descended to him
unpopular with the Egyptian people. The Old Kingdom (ca. 2685-2180 B.C.) was followed by a period of weakness and unrest. Even the Great Pyramid of Cheops had been broken into by unhappy Egyptians. According to historian Ahmed Fakhry:
The Egyptians so hated the builders of the pyramids that they threatened to enter these great tombs and destroy the mummies of the kings.6
Such intense loathing is certainly not surprising. In order to get the great pyramids built, Egyptian society was made more repressive in order to make human labor operate with greater machinelike efficiency. Occupations became rigid
from heaven to the north of Memphis [a city in ancient Egypt].”5 The Great Pyramid at Gizeh, which was built so that it was difficult to move from one type of job to
several generations later during the “Age of the Pyramids,” another. Laymen ceased to serve the “gods”: an impene- was constructed according to the methods established by trable priesthood was erected instead. Personal happiness
Imhotep. It was during the Age of the Pyramids, which and achievement were sacrificed in the name of labor pro-
began around 2760 B.C., that worship of the humanlike ductivity. Feudalism had arrived in Egypt.
“gods” reached its height; more than 2000 gods then existed. As the pharaohs were busy helping to make slaves out of
It was for their “gods” that the Egyptians had ultimately built their fellow humans, the “gods” were making fools out of the their most important pyramids. The many pyramids built pharaohs. Imhotep, reputed son of the “god” Ptah, instituted
after those at Gizeh are generally inferior and are viewed the concept of the pharaoh as “God-King.” This elitist title as imitations. was little appreciated by most Egyptians. As “God-Kings,”
Some theorists believe that the “ancient astronauts” of the pharaohs were made to think that they were elevated
Egypt had used their space age technology to lift stones above the toiling human multitudes. The pharaohs were and to otherwise assist in the construction of the Gizeh taught that if they cooperated with Custodial plans, they
pyramids. This hypothesis is neither certain nor necessary would escape the human predicament by joining the “gods”
to sustain the “ancient astronaut” theory. Egyptian records in the heavens.
tend to support the idea that human labor had provided the There was just one catch.
primary muscle for the pyramids’ construction. This would The pharaohs would be allowed to escape Earth only
have been in keeping with the Mesopotamian contention that after they had died! Pharaohs were taught the silly idea Homo sapiens had been created to be a labor pool for the that if they had their dead bodies carefully preserved, the
Custodial “gods.” bodies would be brought back to life and they could join
It is hardly surprising that the pharaohs and priests who the Custodial “gods” in the heavens. Some pharaohs, like acted on behalf of the “gods” were often immensely Cheops, also buried large wooden boats near their tombs.
According to some scholars, the pharaohs believed that their entombed boats (“solar barks”) would be magically exhumed and endowed with the same power that caused
64 William Bramley
the “boats” of the “gods” to fly. The pharaohs believed that they would be whisked away after death in their magically- powered wooden boats to the home of the “gods” in the heavens.
Although Egyptian preservation techniques were quite good, it is clear that the pharaohs’ minds were being filled with nonsense. The wooden “solar barks” never flew. Few, if any, mummified bodies of the great God-Kings reached the heavens. Instead, many mummies have become maca- bre museum curiosities for the titillation of the human multitudes that the pharaohs so fervently hoped to escape. Other mummies suffered an even more humiliating fate: they were ground up and used as an ingredient in medi- cines. Pulverized mummies also became paint additives because of the preservatives used in the mummification These practices had a devastating impact on spiritual process. understanding. They caused people to wrongly equate spir-
The puzzle is why the pharaohs believed the cruel joke itual wholeness with spiritual attachment to human bodies which had been perpetrated on them. Some historians sug- (or to body substitutes). Such teachings encouraged humans gest that mummification was an attempt to imitate the to accept the Custodial intention to permanently join spir- life-cycle of the butterfly. Others believe that the pharaohs itual beings to Homo sapiens bodies. The powerful human wanted to maintain their wealth and position in their next drives for spiritual integrity and immortality were twisted lifetimes and therefore desired to be resurrected in the into an obsessive quest to preserve bodies. Philosophies of same bodies. One UFO writer has suggested that they were materialism were thereby hastened. Materialism, by one of striving to duplicate body preservation techniques used by its definitions, is the overpreoccupation with things at the Egypt’s technologically-advanced “gods.” Ancient Egyptian material level and neglecting important aspects of ethical records, however, reveal an even more compelling reason and spiritual existence. This often leads to the second defi- why the pharaohs mummified themselves: spiritual knowl- nition of materialism: the belief that everything, includ- edge had been twisted. ing thought and emotion, can be explained entirely by
Ancient Egyptians believed in a “soul,” or “serf,” as movements and changes in physical matter. Although the an entity completely separate from the “person” (mean- Egyptians had not embraced the latter definition as a phi- ing “body”). Egyptians labeled one such spiritual entity losophy of life, they had helped move the world a step in the “ka.” The Egyptians believed that the “ka,” not the that direction. body, was one of the spiritual entities that constituted the The derailment of spiritual knowledge in Egypt was true person and that the body itself had no personality caused by the corruption of the Brotherhood of the Snake, or intelligence without a spiritual entity. This generally to which the pharaohs and priests belonged. As mentioned enlightened view was given a false twist, however. The earlier, after its reported defeat thousands of years ago Egyptians were made to believe that the spiritual well of the by its Custodial enemies, the Brotherhood continued to “ka” after death depended upon the “ka” maintaining con- remain dominant in human affairs, but at the cost of tact with a physical body. According to historian Fakhry: becoming a Custodial tool. To understand how the cor-
THE GODS OF EDEN 65
The Egyptian wanted his Ka to be able to recog- nize its body after death and to be united with it; for this reason he felt that it was very important to have his body preserved. This is why the Egyptians mummified their bodies and excelled in embalming them.7
The pharaohs went even a step further. Mr. Fakhry explains:
The Egyptians also made statues and placed them in tombs and temples to act as substitutes for the body if it should perish.8
66 William Bramley
rupted Brotherhood began to distort spiritual truth and perpetuate theological irrationality, we must first look at the early inner workings of the Brotherhood and its method of teaching.
The original uncorrupted Brotherhood engaged in a prag- matic program of spiritual education. The organization’s approach was scientific, not mystical or ceremonial. The subject of the spirit was considered to be as knowable as any other science. It seems that the Brotherhood possessed a considerable body of accurate spiritual data, but it had not succeeded in developing a complete route to spiritual freedom prior to its defeat.
Brotherhood teachings were arranged as a step-by-step process. A student was required to satisfactorily complete one level of instruction before proceding to the next one. All pupils took oaths of secrecy in which they swore never to reveal the teachings of a level to any person who had not yet graduated up to that level. This style of instruction was designed to ensure that a student did not prematurely attempt difficult spiritual feats or become overwhelmed by advanced level-information before he was ready for it, in the same way that one does not take a student driver on treacherous mountain roads before the student suc- cessfully navigates easier, but increasingly difficult, high- ways first.
Imparting spiritual knowledge in this fashion will be effective as long as the levels are ultimately open to
THE GODS OF EDEN 67
Jose, California,* the first temple built for use by the Mystery Schools was erected by Pharaoh Cheops. Inside those temple walls, spiritual knowledge underwent the deterioration which caused pharaohs to mummify their bodies and bury wooden boats. According to old Egyptian lore, the distorted teachings of the Mystery Schools were created by the “great teacher,” Ra, an important Custodial “god.”
The Mystery Schools not only twisted spiritual knowl- edge, they greatly restricted public access to any theological truths still surviving. Only the pharaohs, priests, and a few others deemed worthy were accepted into the Schools. Ini- tiates were required to take solemn vows never to reveal to any outsiders the “secret wisdom” they were taught; students were threatened with dire consequences if they broke the vow. These restrictions were reportedly established to pre- vent misuse of high-level knowledge by those who might degrade that knowledge or use it harmfully. While this is a legitimate reason to develop safeguards, the restrictions imposed by the Mystery Schools went far beyond simple security. Entire social and occupational groups were denied membership. The vast majority of the human population had no hope of entering the Schools; their access to any
* Rosicrucianism is one of the mystical systems which arose out of Brother- hood teachings. Dr. Lewis’s Rosicrucian Order is called The Ancient and Mystical Order Rosae Crucis (“AMORC” for brevity). AMORC
everyone. When arbitrary or blanket restrictions are placed was founded in the early 1900’s. It is best known today for the on who may have access to the teachings, either through popular Egyptian Museum it owns and operates in San Jose, California.
overregulation, elitism, or by setting near-impossible condi- tions for admittance, the system of confidential step-by-step levels changes from an educational tool into an instrument of
spiritual repression. The Brotherhood underwent just such a
There is another American Rosicrucian order headquartered in Quaker- town, Pennsylvania. It is called the Fraternity of the Rosy Cross, or The Rosicrucian Fraternity in America. The Rosicrucian Fraternity in Quakertown does not recognize AMORC as a valid Rosicrucian body. In the 1930’s and 1940’s, R. Swinburne Clymer, Supreme Grand Master of
change. the Rosicrucian Fraternity in Quakertown, published a number of writings
The teachings of the Brotherhood in ancient Egypt were organized into an institution known as the “Mys- tery Schools.” The Schools furnished the pharaohs and priests with most of their scientific, moral, and spir- itual education. According to Dr. H. Spencer Lewis, founder of the Rosicrucian Order headquartered in San
denouncing AMORC. Dr. Clymer and Dr. Lewis have each claimed that his organization is the true Rosicrucian system.
hi this book, I have utilized the extensive historical research of both Dr. Clymer and Dr. Lewis. When I cite either of them by name as a source of historical information, I am not taking sides in their controversy.
68 William Bramley
surviving spiritual knowledge was therefore severely lim- ited. The Biblical “revolving sword” preventing access to the “tree of knowledge” was being put into place by those who ran the Mystery Schools.
The Mystery Schools caused spiritual knowledge to evap- orate in another way. The Schools forbade its members from physically recording the Schools’ most advanced teachings. Initiates were required to relay the information orally. There is no faster way to lose knowledge than to forbid its being written down. No matter how sincere and well-trained peo- ple may be, word-of-mouth will invariably result in changes to the ideas being relayed. With a word substituted here and a sentence omitted there, the semantic precision needed to communicate an exact scientific principle will be lost. This is one way that a functional science can quickly degrade into an untenable superstition.
As time went on, the Brotherhood became so restrictive that it excluded most of Egypt’s own priests from mem- bership. This was especially true during the reign of King Thutmose III, who ruled about 1200 years after Cheops. Thutmose III is best known for his military adventures which expanded the Egyptian empire to its greatest size. According to Dr. Lewis, Thutmose III took the final step of transforming the Brotherhood into a completely closed order. He established rules and regulations reportedly still used by some Brotherhood organizations today.
Changes in the Brotherhood continued. Less than one hundred years after the reign of Thutmose III, his descen- dant, King Akhnaton (Amenhotep IV), spent the last year of his 28-year life transforming Brotherhood teachings into mystical symbols. Akhnaton’s symbols were intentionally designed to be incomprehensible to everyone except those Brotherhood members who were taught the symbols’ secret meanings. The Brotherhood ostensibly created this new system of visual images to be a universal “language” of spiritual enlightenment transcending human languages, and to prevent misuse of knowledge. In real fact, the intention was to create a secret code designed to make spiritual knowl- edge unattainable to everyone except those admitted into the increasingly elite Brotherhood, and apparently to eventually
THE GODS OF EDEN 69
obliterate spiritual knowledge altogether. The translation of spiritual data into bizarre and incomprehensible symbols has brought about the spectacle of honest people trying to decode garbled symbols in a quest for spiritual truths which can, and should be, communicated in everyday language understandable by anyone.
Despite the obvious sincerity of Akhnaton, we discover that the transformation of spiritual knowledge into a sys- tem of obscure symbols has had a devastating impact on human society. As this manner of relaying spiritual knowl- edge was disseminated throughout the world by members of the Brotherhood, all knowledge of a spiritual nature became misidentified with bizarre symbols and mystery. This misidentification is so strong today that almost all studies of the spirit and spiritual phenomena are lumped into such disgraced classifications as “occultism,” “spiritualism,” and witchcraft. The attempt thousands of years ago to keep spiritual knowledge out of the hands of the “profane” has almost entirely destroyed the credibility and utility of that knowledge. Brotherhood symbolism was another piece of the Biblical “revolving sword” blocking human access to spiritual knowledge. It has left only the confusion, ignorance and superstition which have come to characterize so much of the field today.
Akhnaton presided over another important development in the Brotherhood. Although the young ruler had fared poorly as a political leader, he achieved everlasting fame for his efforts to champion the cause of monotheism, i.e., the worship of a “one only” God. Monotheism was a Brother- hood teaching and many historians cite Akhnaton as the first important historical figure to broadly promulgate the concept.
To aid in the establishment of the Brotherhood’s new monotheism, Akhnaton moved the capital of Egypt to the city of El Amarna. He also relocated the main temple of the Brotherhood there. When the Egyptian capital was moved back to its original situs, the Brotherhood remained in El Amarna. This signaled an important break between Egypt’s established priesthood, which resisted Akhnaton’s monotheism, and the highly exclusive Brotherhood which
70 William Bramley THE GODS OF EDEN 71
no longer admitted most priests to membership. then it appears that all individual spiritual beings within the The ancient Egyptian empire eventually decayed and van- universe are responsible for its creation and/or perpetuation.
The scope of a Supreme Being would actually extend far beyond the creation of a single universe.
Secondly, a Supreme Being is usually portrayed as a spir- itual being capable of possibly unlimited thought, creativity, and ability. A Supreme Being is said to be an entity which can make and unmake universes. The big question is this:
Why must we be limited to only one such being? Is there any reason not to suppose the existence of ten such beings? Or a hundred? Or an almost infinite number? It appears that the Brotherhood definition of a “one God” actually describes the native potential of every spiritual being, including those spiritual beings who animate human bodies on Earth. The true nature and capabilities of every spiritual being would therefore be hidden by doctrines which state that only a Supreme Being may enjoy pure spiritual existence and unlimited spiritual potential. Brotherhood monotheism would actually hinder human spiritual recovery and prevent people from grasping the true, and probably
ished. The Brotherhood of the Snake fared much better. It survived and expanded by sending out from Egypt mission- aries and conquerors who established Brotherhood branches and offshoots throughout the civilized world. These Brother- hood emissaries widely disseminated the Brotherhood’s new “one God” religion and eventually made it the dominant theology throughout the world.
Many theologians hail monotheism as an important reli- cal “revolving sword” to prevent access to spiritual knowl- gious breakthrough. Worshipping a spiritual “one-only God” edge. It also allowed the Custodians to greatly elevate then- is indeed an improvement over the idolization of stone own status. As part of its new monotheism, the Brotherhood statues and clumsy animals. Unfortunately, Brotherhood began to teach the fiction that members of the Custodial monotheism still did not represent a return to complete race were the physical manifestations of a Supreme Being. accuracy; it simply added new distortions to whatever spir- In other words, Custodians started pretending that they and itual knowledge still remained. their aircraft were the “one-only God.” History records that
Based upon what we are coming to know about the nature they used extraordinary violence to make Homo sapiens of the spiritual being, we find that two false twists appear to believe the falsehood. Few lies have had as devastating an lay in the Brotherhood’s definition of a Supreme Being: impact on human society, yet it became a prime mission
Firstly, Brotherhood monotheisms, which include Juda- of the corrupted Brotherhood, from the time of Akhnaton ism, Christianity, and Islam, teach that a Supreme Being to the modern day, to make humans believe that the Cus- was the creator of the physical universe and of the physical todians and their aircraft were “
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